You're just like a lot of intelligent people who have questions, and question the attitudes and beliefs of their society. You have the attitude of the scientist, who accepts little on faith, but is looking for evidence and reliable approaches to problems. The Buddha has been considered something akin to a scientist (Buddhism a 'science of mind'), and in fact many men and women of science have been attracted to Buddhism. Of course, intelligent people from all backgrounds have been attracted to the Dhamma's pragmatic and reliable teachings.
Many here on Dhamma Wheel are focused on the early actual teachings (Pali Canon based) of the Buddha. The sister site mentioned is more focused on later developments that arose from the Buddha's teachings, some of which changed substantially the teachings over time, or invented new teachings. If you'd like to get an understanding of the core foundational teachings of the Buddha, this site is a great place to read and explore, and share ideas.
As to the issue of your fear of death and anxieties over what occurs after death, I can advise only that you can take comfort in the teachings of the Buddha. The Buddha was clear that his teachings were not to be taken as metaphysical, but practical and applicable to life and the science of the mind. However, part of his key teachings are founded on the interrelationships between our thoughts and actions, how our actions give rise to other actions and events, and how these actions give rise to the quality of our life and eventual rebirth. So much of the Buddha's teachings turn on these cause and effect concepts, and it is indisputable that the Buddha taught of the cycle of rebirth, including teaching of knowledge of his own rebirths before his awakening. So, as I understand it, the Buddha was very interested in teaching the science of mind and life, in this current round of life, but that this is tied very much to the rounds of rebirth that we will experience. Many of us here do have some trust in the idea that after our physical bodies die, we experience a transition of our "not-self" entity into a next life. There are some scientists that have done studies on rebirth, and while the subject is controversial, it is a concept that to many makes enormous sense. So, don't worry about what happens after we leave this skinbag. The Buddha didn't.
For me, this practice is more about science, and a measure of trust in what this great man was teaching, and how these teachings are being rediscovered and validated now 2600 years after his passing. You may note the quality of the men and women who identify as Buddhists, the many physicists and scientists that have found a home in Buddhism. In general, a lot of thoughtful, smart, wise and compassionate people identify with Buddhism.
So, welcome, Serenity. Make a pot of tea and stay a while. Dhamma Wheel is a fountain of information and shared ideas, and it is a site from which you can learn and share a lot. As for a place to start, see if this popular monk is a useful starting point for you, as he is for many: http://youtu.be/e7rFsrdtMM8
Take some time with these teachings of the Buddha, and see how your own practice evolves. I promise you that you will find peace, comfort, and a sense of extreme reliability in what this man Gotama taught 2600 years ago.