Oleksandr wrote:But can you describe how Theravada tradition spread in Indonesia in 20th century?
Greetings Oleksandr, I tried to sum up the information from some good sources, and here we go..> 423 C.E. :
A bhikkhu from Kashmir named Gunawarman came to Java and spread Buddhism (Theravada).
> Based on the Chinese Script (Tang), in mid 7th century in Central Java, there was a kingdom named Kaling, more popular with the name Holing which was leaded by a Queen, Sima. Holing turned to be a Buddhist centre & many Chinese people came to learn Buddhism, even though Buddhism was an official religion in China in Tang dynasty.
> mid 7th century: the greatest Buddhist Kingdom "Srivijaya" grew & expanded to be an important harbour in Malaccan Strait (traffic between India & China trading).Srivijaya then became a Buddhist centre in SE Asia. Buddhism tradition in Srivijaya was Mahayana and used Sanskrit.
> A bhikkhu from China in Tang Dynasty, Yi Jing (I-Tsing), visited Palembang, capital city of Srivijaya (Sumatera), and reported that there were more than 1000 bhikkhus there. In that era, Theravada tradition was a majority in the whole nation, except in the Malaya area which adopted Mahayana.
> 779 C.E. : Tantrayana and Mahayana were thriving, while Theravada was in constriction because of the entering of the other traditions brought by the Indians.
> 8th century: The Borobudur was made in Sailendra dynasty. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sailendra
> 1365 C.E. : Majapahit defeated Srivijaya, it was the second golden era of Buddhism in Indonesia after Srivijaya.
> 1527 C.E. : The Moslem Kingdom 'Demak', defeated Majapahit, the end of Buddhism golden era.> 1934 C.E. :
The coming of Ven. Narada Thera from Sri Lanka in Indonesia was on March 4th, 1934. He revived the BuddhaDhamma that has disappeared in Indonesia since the falling of the Majapahit kingdom. A Bodhi Tree planting ceremony was organised and few upasakas were ordained as monks. The attempt to bring back Buddhism was further accelerated when a monk called Ashin Jinarakkhita commenced a tour across different regions in Indonesia to spread the Dhamma. This was in the year 1955 and since then Theravada Buddhism began to stage a comeback on the religious scene of Indonesia spearheaded by local monks trained in Thailand. > 1976 C.E. :
The Sangha Theravada Indonesia was constituted headed by Ven.Aggabalo. Presently it is headed by Ven. Sri Pannavaro Mahathera. A young but highly charismatic bhikkhu, he is largely responsible for the tremendous interest in Theravada in the last decade. Through his sermons, which are televised on Indonesian airwaves, a large number of Indonesia's 200 million population have become familiar with the Theravada form of Buddhism. In 1998, he was awarded the title of Chao Khun by King Bhumibol of Thailand. One of the tangible results of Theravada's recent popularity was the construction of the magnificent Vihara Jakarta Dhammacakka Jaya in Indonesia's capital city donated by a local industrialist Mr. Anton Haliman. Today, the Sangha Theravada Indonesia comprises more than 60 bhikkhus ( of both Chinese and Malay ethnic origin ), residing in about 25 viharas mostly on the island of Java. However, there are also viharas on the islands of Sumatra and Bali. The bhikkhus travel widely throughout the Indonesian archipelago to teach. As a result several viharas have also been built on the more remote and distant regions such as the towns of Balikpapan and Banjarmasin on the island of Kalimantan and Manado in Sulawesi.
Sorry, you might be confused