Other conditions today???

Theravāda in the 21st century - modern applications of ancient wisdom

Re: Other conditions today???

Postby Cittasanto » Sun May 27, 2012 9:00 pm

befriend wrote:im not sure what the mode of dress for women in india/nepal was but living in the US and watching television for 10 minutes and you are bombarded with breasts. and what is the cause of lust to arise? focusing on beauty. granted its my own will to look at the breasts but it make it a lot easier for me to practice renunciation if women covered up more. not that im at a point in my life where i want women to cover up, im not that spiritual. ha. im just making a statement that practicing now may be harder than practicing then what with all the lustful ads.


You know there are examples of it being even worse then!
bear(sp?) chested women are found in the canon. and if you are in a situation where there is a lack of sensual stimuli small details (ancles or the smallest amount of curve, or body exposure) can become overwhelming, and just as exciting.
Last edited by Cittasanto on Sun May 27, 2012 9:08 pm, edited 1 time in total.
This offering maybe right, or wrong, but it is one, the other, both, or neither!
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Blog, - Some Suttas Translated, Ajahn Chah.
"Others will misconstrue reality due to their personal perspectives, doggedly holding onto and not easily discarding them; We shall not misconstrue reality due to our own personal perspectives, nor doggedly holding onto them, but will discard them easily. This effacement shall be done."
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Re: Other conditions today???

Postby Cittasanto » Sun May 27, 2012 9:07 pm

jason c wrote:dear cittasanto,
once someone has found the path the buddha has described, and developed the technique of practice the buddha has described. they become their own teacher their own master, and can progress on the path at a pace that suits them. i see the world we live in today, with the financial difficulties, the mistreatment of animals,and the amount of drugs humans are taking just to deal with the pain. i also see the confusion and fighting that is caused by organised religions (buddhism included), and i think why is it so difficult for people to find the truth? and then i look at myself and i see the confusion, the hurdles, the difficulties, the chances, and the pain i endured to find this path. it is not as visible as one may think. if it was there would be one teaching, one practice, not all these different sects. the teachings of the buddha are as relevant today as they were 2500yrs ago. so why aren't there more people practicing why is the world in such a chaotic state. buddhism doesnt have to evolve, people still find it, but isn't it a crime for it not to evolve, not to reach its arms out and all those who are suffering. what is the harm in updating old stories to reach a new generation? its selfish of us not to!
metta,
jason

There is updating, and then changing.
if something can be adapted to work in different situations, great, but if it works perfectly well & isn't broken don't fix it.
This offering maybe right, or wrong, but it is one, the other, both, or neither!
With Metta
Upāsaka Cittasanto
Blog, - Some Suttas Translated, Ajahn Chah.
"Others will misconstrue reality due to their personal perspectives, doggedly holding onto and not easily discarding them; We shall not misconstrue reality due to our own personal perspectives, nor doggedly holding onto them, but will discard them easily. This effacement shall be done."
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Re: Other conditions today???

Postby Alex123 » Sun May 27, 2012 9:46 pm

Greetings Retro,

retrofuturist wrote:There is still eye and forms. There is still ear and sounds. There is still body and touch. There is still tongue and taste. There is still nose and smell. There is still mind and thought.


There was alive Buddha Gotama who could point out the mistakes of people. Today we do not have the Buddha who can say "this interpretation is correct. This interpretation is not correct. You need this method, another person needs another method." There is no guarantee that a certain method is right one, especially for someone personally. In VsM there are about 40 objects of meditation. Which one do fits someone the best? How can one know? To try all out might take more than one life, especially if one doesn't have much of it left. Just because one likes some method, it doesn't mean that it is most effective for one.

There are also different kinds of vipassana (Goenka, Mahasi, Ajahn Naeb, Ajahn Chan, etc). Which one is most appropriate?
I was not; I was; I am not; I do not care."
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Re: Other conditions today???

Postby retrofuturist » Sun May 27, 2012 10:45 pm

Greetings Alex,

Sorry, I do not see the connection between what you have written, nor Cittasanto's question that I responded to.

You're saying that the "other condition today" is the absence of a Sammasambuddha "who could point out the mistakes of people". Fair enough, I suppose... it's one of the better reasons I've heard, though it doesn't change the actual challenge at hand - it only changes the quality of personal instruction available.

Metta,
Retro. :)
If you have asked me of the origination of unease, then I shall explain it to you in accordance with my understanding:
Whatever various forms of unease there are in the world, They originate founded in encumbering accumulation. (Pārāyanavagga)


Exalted in mind, just open and clearly aware, the recluse trained in the ways of the sages:
One who is such, calmed and ever mindful, He has no sorrows! -- Udana IV, 7


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Re: Other conditions today???

Postby Alex123 » Sun May 27, 2012 11:40 pm

retrofuturist wrote:Greetings Alex,

Sorry, I do not see the connection between what you have written, nor Cittasanto's question that I responded to.

You're saying that the "other condition today" is the absence of a Sammasambuddha "who could point out the mistakes of people". Fair enough, I suppose... it's one of the better reasons I've heard, though it doesn't change the actual challenge at hand - it only changes the quality of personal instruction available.

Metta,
Retro. :)


bold is mine. That can make almost all the difference. If a person gets incorrect instruction (which may or may not have worked for someone else), then no major progress can be made.
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Re: Other conditions today???

Postby hanzze_ » Mon May 28, 2012 2:50 am

Cittasanto wrote:Hi Hanzee
these where qualified within the context of the line they were originally found in.
there has not been any demonstrable examples of difference from now & what would of been present in the time of the Buddha or before.

the questions are not relevant to me as there is a demonstrable effect of the teachings seen by myself and others which points to no differences not explainable from the teachings and confirmed by the practice (as already eluded to in reply to an earlier post to yours, which disqualified any levels or ability to understand as a qualified example as it shows different levels of ability to understand existed back then (look for Sahampati). to provide another example of this, there are gross & subtle manifestations of the root causes of greed, hatred & delusion, seen within the texts, so observed within the time of the Buddha, this is also seen by practitioners today, this is why for me there is no difference (as already explained). so as you are arguing for there being 1. different causes (of which you have admitted there are none) & 2. today is worse for practice due to some difference, as these would effect practice and the light the teachings should be viewed in, it is worth hearing what the problem is.

Dear Cittasanto,
maybe you have not seen that I divided conditions in two part. One are conditions as they are timeless for every being every time (at least the first three noble truth) and second are the conditions for every being to escape (the four noble truth) with is not timeless and depends on the mass of defilement (merits).
The first is timeless, the second is a question of effort (intention and it's tendency). Every being would be possible to come trough the gate, but its not a condition possible independently form right intentions over a long time. General tendencies have influence as well as they are caused by individuals. Think on admirable friends. If there are less holy people in the world, it's natural that there will be less who are friends of them or associate with them. If you like to change it (and its good not to practice just for one self), show that even the conditions of time and right intentions are not a matter of time. Can you do that? What is the problem with it?
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Re: Other conditions today???

Postby hanzze_ » Mon May 28, 2012 2:59 am

jason c wrote:dear cittasanto,
once someone has found the path the buddha has described, and developed the technique of practice the buddha has described. they become their own teacher their own master, and can progress on the path at a pace that suits them. i see the world we live in today, with the financial difficulties, the mistreatment of animals,and the amount of drugs humans are taking just to deal with the pain. i also see the confusion and fighting that is caused by organised religions (buddhism included), and i think why is it so difficult for people to find the truth? and then i look at myself and i see the confusion, the hurdles, the difficulties, the chances, and the pain i endured to find this path. it is not as visible as one may think. if it was there would be one teaching, one practice, not all these different sects. the teachings of the buddha are as relevant today as they were 2500yrs ago. so why aren't there more people practicing why is the world in such a chaotic state. buddhism doesnt have to evolve, people still find it, but isn't it a crime for it not to evolve, not to reach its arms out and all those who are suffering. what is the harm in updating old stories to reach a new generation? its selfish of us not to!
metta,
jason

Pull our your own share, what is the problem to walk the eightfold path. Do you like to change the the truth of suffering, the origin of suffering and its cessation? Dependent conditions can be just uprooted by depending uprooting and as the cause is the wrong self-believe its a matter of doing it by your self. The faster you do that the more you also chance the conditions for others in the world. As long one seeks for security in compound phenomena, suffering is present. Today people tend fanatical to seek refuge in it, no need to follow. The unbinding is always present. Better your conditions to it.
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Re: Other conditions today???

Postby hanzze_ » Mon May 28, 2012 3:09 am

retrofuturist wrote:Greetings Alex,

Sorry, I do not see the connection between what you have written, nor Cittasanto's question that I responded to.

You're saying that the "other condition today" is the absence of a Sammasambuddha "who could point out the mistakes of people". Fair enough, I suppose... it's one of the better reasons I've heard, though it doesn't change the actual challenge at hand - it only changes the quality of personal instruction available.

Metta,
Retro. :)

Dear Retro,
It would be not available even a Sammasambuddha would be present, if your conditions to see him as this are not timely. There are times when a sammasambuddha appears and there are times, there are no condition for it. Individual the quality of teachings are also up to oneself.

There are suttas when and what conditions are needed for the appearance of a Buddha and there are also suttas, which conditions are needed that Dhamma flourishes and there are conditions quoted when one individual is able to walk the path to it's aim.
All conditions are always related to the personality, to the quality of presence of the discernment regarding the "self". With its perfection conditions related to a being disappear.
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Re: Other conditions today???

Postby retrofuturist » Mon May 28, 2012 3:29 am

Greetings hanzze,

Assuming I'm reading you correctly...

I agree that one needs wisdom &/or criteria to be able to discern a good teacher, and differentiate from those who are most excellent, those who are middling, and those who are inferior. Different wisdom and criteria will lead to different assessments, and there may be a degree of "different strokes, for different folks" too.

the quality of presence of the discernment regarding the "self". With its perfection conditions related to a being disappear.

And here we appear to be going full circle back to where our discussion started... though you'll have to excuse me if I've misinterpreted what you're trying to communicate.

Metta,
Retro. :)
If you have asked me of the origination of unease, then I shall explain it to you in accordance with my understanding:
Whatever various forms of unease there are in the world, They originate founded in encumbering accumulation. (Pārāyanavagga)


Exalted in mind, just open and clearly aware, the recluse trained in the ways of the sages:
One who is such, calmed and ever mindful, He has no sorrows! -- Udana IV, 7


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Re: Other conditions today???

Postby hanzze_ » Mon May 28, 2012 3:34 am

I am sure that this circle goes on, it's a matter of conditions. So is the gain of wisdom a matter of time or something that can come out of nothing?

Our intentions have actually very much power if we can see the crap between past and presents. Never forget, the world is what your are making out of it all the time. It's just your world and the conditions you might bring. Or is there an outside world?
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Re: Other conditions today???

Postby retrofuturist » Mon May 28, 2012 3:36 am

Greetings Hanzze,

hanzze_ wrote:It's just your world and the conditions you might bring.

I agree, but unless you want to follow the path of the paccekabuddhas, it is good to learn what we can from the best sources available at any one time.

Metta,
Retro. :)
If you have asked me of the origination of unease, then I shall explain it to you in accordance with my understanding:
Whatever various forms of unease there are in the world, They originate founded in encumbering accumulation. (Pārāyanavagga)


Exalted in mind, just open and clearly aware, the recluse trained in the ways of the sages:
One who is such, calmed and ever mindful, He has no sorrows! -- Udana IV, 7


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Re: Other conditions today???

Postby hanzze_ » Mon May 28, 2012 3:41 am

retrofuturist wrote:Greetings Hanzze,

hanzze_ wrote:It's just your world and the conditions you might bring.

I agree, but unless you want to follow the path of the paccekabuddhas, it is good to learn what we can from the best sources available at any one time.

Metta,
Retro. :)

Yes, but that is conditioned and depends on our days, past intentions and many who carry it (external reminders if we do not our self). To gain passekabuddha hood is also conditioned individual, but not so much in regard of a available teaching. I guess we need to remember that everything is always present, its just about the tools do dig it up and there are days, when people are digging much more in the outside world, we can call it an materialistic digging time and that gives a lot of dust.
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Re: Other conditions today???

Postby manas » Mon May 28, 2012 3:48 am

befriend wrote:im not sure what the mode of dress for women in india/nepal was but living in the US and watching television for 10 minutes and you are bombarded with breasts. and what is the cause of lust to arise? focusing on beauty. granted its my own will to look at the breasts but it make it a lot easier for me to practice renunciation if women covered up more. not that im at a point in my life where i want women to cover up, im not that spiritual. ha. im just making a statement that practicing now may be harder than practicing then what with all the lustful ads.


Hi befriend,

I found, by accident, a wonderful solution for that particular torment. When my TV stopped working, I did not bother to get it fixed. It just sits there, un-useable. And after what you just wrote, i'm thinking of putting it in the shed, maybe even retiring it permanently. Thank you for kindly reminding me of why I'm better off not having one.

:namaste:
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Re: Other conditions today???

Postby Cittasanto » Mon May 28, 2012 7:39 am

hanzze_ wrote:
Cittasanto wrote:Hi Hanzee
these where qualified within the context of the line they were originally found in.
there has not been any demonstrable examples of difference from now & what would of been present in the time of the Buddha or before.

the questions are not relevant to me as there is a demonstrable effect of the teachings seen by myself and others which points to no differences not explainable from the teachings and confirmed by the practice (as already eluded to in reply to an earlier post to yours, which disqualified any levels or ability to understand as a qualified example as it shows different levels of ability to understand existed back then (look for Sahampati). to provide another example of this, there are gross & subtle manifestations of the root causes of greed, hatred & delusion, seen within the texts, so observed within the time of the Buddha, this is also seen by practitioners today, this is why for me there is no difference (as already explained). so as you are arguing for there being 1. different causes (of which you have admitted there are none) & 2. today is worse for practice due to some difference, as these would effect practice and the light the teachings should be viewed in, it is worth hearing what the problem is.

Dear Cittasanto,
maybe you have not seen that I divided conditions in two part. One are conditions as they are timeless for every being every time (at least the first three noble truth) and second are the conditions for every being to escape (the four noble truth) with is not timeless and depends on the mass of defilement (merits).
The first is timeless, the second is a question of effort (intention and it's tendency). Every being would be possible to come trough the gate, but its not a condition possible independently form right intentions over a long time. General tendencies have influence as well as they are caused by individuals. Think on admirable friends. If there are less holy people in the world, it's natural that there will be less who are friends of them or associate with them. If you like to change it (and its good not to practice just for one self), show that even the conditions of time and right intentions are not a matter of time. Can you do that? What is the problem with it?

Hi Hanzee,
All four Noble truths are timeless, all enlightened beings will reach the final goal through following the Eighforld Path. Whether they will teach or have the ability to teach is not guaranteed though, however the teachings pointing directly to the deathless are still available, at the very least through the canon.
You seam to believe that it is impossible to reach enlightenment today, without many lifetimes of practice (or that it is impossible to do good) which is not the case, as it is how we practice the dhamma in conformity with the dhamma in the here and now which makes the difference.
This offering maybe right, or wrong, but it is one, the other, both, or neither!
With Metta
Upāsaka Cittasanto
Blog, - Some Suttas Translated, Ajahn Chah.
"Others will misconstrue reality due to their personal perspectives, doggedly holding onto and not easily discarding them; We shall not misconstrue reality due to our own personal perspectives, nor doggedly holding onto them, but will discard them easily. This effacement shall be done."
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Re: Other conditions today???

Postby hanzze_ » Mon May 28, 2012 8:44 am

Dear Cittasanto,
You put some perceptions in that what is written. Once again, there are conditions that one is able to join the path even it is always there. And those conditions are not always there, if so, we would not need to put effort into awakening.

And they are also conditioned by so called outside things (which are also conditioned by ones personal past) like climate, necessaries...

But to give you some rest (which is actually not good, because conditions like you have today might not come easy again) here something which should not make you rest but inspire to dig:

Groundwater

The Buddha is the Dhamma; the Dhamma is the Buddha. The Dhamma the Buddha awakened to is something always there in the world. It hasn't disappeared. It's like groundwater. Whoever digs a well down to the level of the groundwater will see water. It's not the case that that person created or fashioned the water into being. All he's done is to put his strength into digging the well so that it's deep enough to reach the water already there.

So if we have any discernment, we'll realize that we're not far from the Buddha at all. We're sitting right in front of him right now. Whenever we understand the Dhamma, we see the Buddha. Those who are intent on practicing the Dhamma continuously — wherever they sit, stand, or walk — are sure to hear the Buddha's Dhamma at all times.

Image

It's All Right Here

The Buddha is the Dhamma; the Dhamma is the Buddha. He didn't take away the knowledge he awakened to. He left it right here. To put it in simple terms, it's like the teachers in schools. They haven't been teachers from birth. They had to study the course of study for teachers before they could be teachers, teaching in school and getting paid. After a while, they'll die away — away from being teachers. But you can say that in a way the teachers don't die. The qualities that make people into teachers remain right here. It's the same with the Buddha. The noble truths that made him the Buddha still remain right here. They haven't run off anywhere at all.


It's done by you past merits if you have seen the good teachings as they are. So it's good to show gratitude for them (your past deeds) and do not wast them. There are less who catches times when they are able to gain release. Conditions are changing and your possibilities are not constant to be able to get into the stream.

additional: Maybe the Jataka 77 (as I just saw that) is an additional inspiration to move on and about ones rare chance and merits to be able to face something special even the ("general" outside) conditions are not very well. I saw there was also a discussion about here on DW (Mahāsupina Jātaka: The Sixteen Dreams of King Pasenadi)
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Re: Other conditions today???

Postby Cittasanto » Mon May 28, 2012 2:37 pm

Hi Hanzee
Good bye, I shall not be responding to you anymore in this thread
This offering maybe right, or wrong, but it is one, the other, both, or neither!
With Metta
Upāsaka Cittasanto
Blog, - Some Suttas Translated, Ajahn Chah.
"Others will misconstrue reality due to their personal perspectives, doggedly holding onto and not easily discarding them; We shall not misconstrue reality due to our own personal perspectives, nor doggedly holding onto them, but will discard them easily. This effacement shall be done."
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Re: Other conditions today???

Postby hanzze_ » Thu May 31, 2012 4:27 am

Just came across and thought it might be useful here, as there are maybe some how don't believe that right practice and ethic has no general impact ans well conditions outside would not have a impact in return and reduce the Dhamma practice to an island of a different kind:

The Wheel-turning Emperor

Translator's Introduction

The body of this sutta consists of a narrative illustrating the power of skillful action.

In the past, unskillful behavior was unknown among the human race. As a result, people lived for an immensely long time — 80,000 years — endowed with great beauty, wealth, pleasure, and strength. Over the course of time, though, they began behaving in various unskillful ways. This caused the human life span gradually to shorten, to the point where it now stands at 100 years, with human beauty, wealth, pleasure, and strength decreasing proportionately. In the future, as morality continues to degenerate, human life will continue to shorten to the point were the normal life span is 10 years, with people reaching sexual maturity at five. "Among those human beings, the ten courses of action (see AN 10.176) will have entirely disappeared... The word 'skillful' will not exist, so from where will there be anyone who does what is skillful? Those who lack the honorable qualities of motherhood, fatherhood, contemplative-hood, & brahman-hood will be the ones who receive homage... Fierce hatred will arise, fierce malevolence, fierce rage, & murderous thoughts: mother for child, child for mother, father for child, child for father, brother for sister, sister for brother." Ultimately, conditions will deteriorate to the point of a "sword-interval," in which swords appear in the hands of all human beings, and they hunt one another like game. A few people, however, will take shelter in the wilderness to escape the carnage, and when the slaughter is over, they will come out of hiding and resolve to take up a life of skillful and virtuous action again. With the recovery of virtue, the human life span will gradually increase again until it reaches 80,000 years, with people attaining sexual maturity at 500. Only three diseases will be known at that time: desire, lack of food, and old age. Another Buddha — Metteyya (Maitreya) — will gain Awakening, his monastic Sangha numbering in the thousands. The greatest king of the time, Sankha, will go forth into homelessness and attain arahantship under Metteyya's guidance.

The story, after chronicling the ups and downs of human wealth, life span, etc., concludes with the following lesson on kamma and skillful action.


..."Monks, live with yourself as your island, yourself as your refuge, with nothing else as your refuge. Live with the Dhamma as your island, the Dhamma as your refuge, with nothing else as your refuge. [1] And how does a monk live with himself as his island, himself as his refuge, with nothing else as his refuge; with the Dhamma as his island, the Dhamma as his refuge, with nothing else as his refuge? There is the case where a monk remains focused on the body in & of itself — ardent, alert, & mindful — putting aside greed & distress with reference to the world. He remains focused on feelings in & of themselves... mind in & of itself... mental qualities in & of themselves — ardent, alert, & mindful — putting aside greed & distress with reference to the world. This is how a monk lives with himself as his island, himself as his refuge, with nothing else as his refuge; with the Dhamma as his island, the Dhamma as his refuge, with nothing else as his refuge.

"Wander, monks, in your proper range, your own ancestral territory. When you wander in your proper range, your own ancestral territory, you will grow in long life, beauty, pleasure, wealth, & strength.

"And what constitutes a monk's long life? [2] There is the case where a monk develops the base of power endowed with concentration founded on desire & the fabrications of exertion. He develops the base of power endowed with concentration founded on persistence... founded on intent... He develops the base of power endowed with concentration founded on discrimination & the fabrications of exertion. From the development & pursuit of these four bases of power, he can stay (alive) for an aeon, if he wants, or for the remainder of an aeon. This constitutes a monk's long life.

"And what constitutes a monk's beauty? There is the case where a monk is virtuous. He dwells restrained in accordance with the Patimokkha, consummate in his behavior & sphere of activity. He trains himself, having undertaken the training rules, seeing danger in the slightest faults. This constitutes a monk's beauty.

"And what constitutes a monk's pleasure? There is the case where a monk — quite withdrawn from sensuality, withdrawn from unskillful mental qualities — enters & remains in the first jhana: rapture & pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought & evaluation. With the stilling of directed thoughts & evaluations, he enters & remains in the second jhana: rapture & pleasure born of composure, unification of awareness free from directed thought & evaluation — internal assurance. With the fading of rapture, he remains equanimous, mindful, & alert, and senses pleasure with the body. He enters & remains in the third jhana, of which the Noble Ones declare, 'Equanimous & mindful, he has a pleasant abiding.' With the abandoning of pleasure & pain — as with the earlier disappearance of elation & distress — he enters & remains in the fourth jhana: purity of equanimity & mindfulness, neither pleasure nor pain. This constitutes a monk's pleasure.

"And what constitutes a monk's wealth? There is the case where a monk keeps pervading the first direction [the east] — as well as the second direction, the third, & the fourth — with an awareness imbued with good will. Thus he keeps pervading above, below, & all around, everywhere & in every respect the all-encompassing world with an awareness imbued with good will: abundant, expansive, immeasurable, free from hostility, free from ill will.

"He keeps pervading the first direction — as well as the second direction, the third, & the fourth — with an awareness imbued with compassion... imbued with appreciation...

"He keeps pervading the first direction — as well as the second direction, the third, & the fourth — with an awareness imbued with equanimity. Thus he keeps pervading above, below, & all around, everywhere & in every respect the all-encompassing world with an awareness imbued with equanimity: abundant, expansive, immeasurable, free from hostility, free from ill will.

"This constitutes a monk's wealth.

"And what constitutes a monk's strength? There is the case where a monk, through the ending of the mental fermentations, enters & remains in the fermentation-free awareness-release & discernment-release, having directly known & realized them for himself right in the here & now. This constitutes a monk's strength.

"Monks, I don't envision any other single strength so hard to overcome as this: the strength of Mara. [3] And the adopting of skillful qualities is what causes this merit to increase." [4]

That is what the Blessed One said. Gratified, the monks delighted in the Blessed One's words.
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Re: Other conditions today???

Postby Cittasanto » Thu May 31, 2012 6:53 am

:focus:
This offering maybe right, or wrong, but it is one, the other, both, or neither!
With Metta
Upāsaka Cittasanto
Blog, - Some Suttas Translated, Ajahn Chah.
"Others will misconstrue reality due to their personal perspectives, doggedly holding onto and not easily discarding them; We shall not misconstrue reality due to our own personal perspectives, nor doggedly holding onto them, but will discard them easily. This effacement shall be done."
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Re: Other conditions today???

Postby hanzze_ » Thu May 31, 2012 6:58 am

I thought it might transport (from an other perspective, put still not tacking-able) that the Buddha saw different conditions in different times, while this also shows the possibility to come out every time.

You will see it also directly linked which the Vinaya for layman which is the relevant condition for becoming a "Wander, monks, in your proper range, your own ancestral territory."
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Re: Other conditions today???

Postby hanzze_ » Thu May 31, 2012 8:37 am

Here a collection of all Conditions, while "Decisive Support: upanissaya" matches the topic most. How ever all works in a pattern of interrelation and is changeable step by step by the present intention (which requires the right intention respecting the interrelation and therefore a truly setting of the intention)

paccaya

'condition', is something on which something else, the so-called 'conditioned thing', is dependent, and without which the latter cannot be. Manifold are the ways in which one thing, or one occurrence, may be the condition for some other thing, or occurrence. In the Patthāna, the last book of the Abhidhamma Pitaka (comprising 6 large vols. in the Siamese edition), these 24 modes of conditionality are enumerated and explained, and then applied to all conceivable mental and physical phenomena and occurrences, and thus their conditioned nature is demonstrated.

The first two volumes of the Patthāna have been translated into English by the Venerable U Nārada (Mūlapatthāna Sayadaw) of Burma, under the title Conditional Relations (Published by the Pāli Text Society, London 1969, 1981). For a synopsis of this work, see Guide VII.

The 24 modes of conditionality are:

1. Root condition: hetu paccaya
2. Object: ārammana
3. Predominance: adhipati
4. Priority: anantara
5. Contiguity: samanantara
6. Co-nascence: sahajāta
7. Mutuality: aññamañña
8. Support: nissaya
9. Decisive Support: upanissaya
10. Pre-nascene: purejāta
11. Post-nascene: pacchājāta
12. Repitition: āsevana
13. Karma: kamma
14. Karma-result: vipāka
15. Nutriment: āhāra
16. Faculty: indriya
17. Jhāna: jhāna
18. Path: magga
19. Associaton: sampayutta
20. Dissociation: vippayutta
21. Presence: atthi
22. Absence: natthi
23. Disappearance: vigata
24. Non-disappearance: avigata

(1) Root-condition (hetu-paccaya) is that condition that resembles the root of a tree. Just as a tree rests on its root, and remains alive only as long as its root is not destroyed, similarly all karmically wholesome and unwholesome mental states are entirely dependent on the simultaneity and presence of their respective roots, i.e., of greed (lobha), hate (dosa), delusion (moha), or greedlessness (alobha), hatelessness (adosa), undeludedness (amoha). For the definition of these 6 roots, s. mūla.

"The roots are a condition by way of root for the (mental) phenomena associated with a root, and for the corporeal phenomena produced thereby (e.g. for bodily expression)" (Patth).

(2) Object-condition (ārammana-paccaya) is called something which, as object, forms the condition for consciousness and mental phenomena. Thus, the physical object of sight consisting in colour and light ('light-wave'), is the necessary condition and the sine qua non for the arising of eye-consciousness (cakkhu-viññāna), etc.; sound ('sound wave') for ear-consciousness (sotā-viññāna), etc.; further, any object arising in the mind is the condition for mind-consciousness (mano-viññāna). The mind-object may be anything whatever, corporeal or mental, past, present or future, real or imaginary.

(3) Predominance-condition (adhipati-paccaya) is the term for 4 things, on the preponderance and predominance of which are dependent the mental phenomena associated with them, namely: concentrated intention (chanda), energy (viriya), consciousness (citta) and investigation (vīmamsā). In one and the same state of consciousness, however, only one of these 4 phenomena can be predominant at a time. "Whenever such phenomena as consciousness and mental concomitants are arising by giving preponderance to one of these 4 things, then this phenomenon is for the other phenomena a condition by way of predominance" (Patth.). Cf. iddhi-pāda.

(4-5) Proximity and contiguity (or immediacy)-condition (anantara and samanantara-paccaya) - both being identical - refer to any state of consciousness and mental phenomena associated with them, which are the conditions for the immediately following stage in the process of consciousness. For example, in the visual process, eye-consciousness is for the immediately following mind element - performing the function of receiving the visible object - a condition by way of contiguity; and so is this mind-element for the next following mind-consciousness element, performing the function of investigating the object, etc. Cf. viññāna-kicca.

(6) Co-nascence condition (sahajāta-paccaya), i.e. condition by way of simultaneous arising, is a phenomenon that for another one forms, a condition in such a way that, simultaneously with its arising, also the other thing must arise. Thus, for instance, in one and the same moment each of the 4 mental groups (feeling, perception, mental formations and consciousness) is for the 3 other groups a condition by way of co-nascence or co-arising; or again each of the 4 physical elements (solid, liquid, heat, motion) is such a condition for the other 3 elements. Only at the moment of conception in the mother's womb does corporeality (physical base of mind) serve for the 4 mental groups as a condition by way of co nascence.

(7) Condition by way of mutuality (aññāmañña-paccaya). All the just mentioned associated and co-nascent mental phenomena, as well as the 4 physical elements, are, of course, at the same time also conditioned by way of mutuality, "just like three sticks propped up one by another." The 4 mental groups are one for another a condition by way of mutuality. So also are the 4 elements, and also mentality and corporeality at the moment of conception.

(8) Support-condition (nissaya-paccaya). This condition refers either to a pre-nascent (s. 10) or co-nascent (s. 6) phenomenon which is aiding other phenomena in the manner of a foundation or base, just as the trees have the earth as their foundation, or as the oil-painting rests on the canvas. In this way, the 5 sense-organs and the physical base of the mind are for the corresponding 6 kinds of consciousness a prenascent, i.e. previously arisen, condition by way of support. Further all co-nascent (s. 6) phenomena are mutually (s. 7) conditioned by each other by way of support.

(9) Decisive-support (or inducement) condition (upanissaya-paccaya) is threefold, namely:

(a) by way of object (ārammanūpanissaya-paccaya),
(b) by way of proximity (anantarūpanissaya),
(c) natural decisive support (pakatupanissaya).

These conditions act as strong inducement or cogent reason.

(a) Anything past, present or future, corporeal or mental, real or imaginary, may, as object of our thinking, become a decisive support, or strong inducement, to moral, immoral or karmically neutral states of mind. Evil things, by wrong thinking about them, become an inducement to immoral life; by right thinking, an inducement to moral life. But good things may be an inducement not only to similarly good things, but also to bad things, such as self-conceit, vanity, envy, etc.
(b;) is identical with proximity condition (No. 4).
(c) Faith, virtue, etc., produced in one's own mind, or the influence of climate, food, etc., on one's body and mind, may act as natural and decisive support-conditions. Faith may be a direct and natural inducement to charity, virtue to mental training, etc.; greed to theft, hate to murder; unsuitable food and climate to ill-health; friends to spiritual progress or deterioration.


(10) Pre-nascence-condition (purejāta-paccaya) refers to something previously arisen, which forms a base for something arising later on. For example, the 5 physical sense-organs and the physical base of mind, having already arisen at the time of birth, form the condition for the consciousness arising later, and for the mental phenomena associated therewith.

(11) Post-nascence-condition (pacchā-jāta-paccaya) refers to consciousness and the phenomena therewith associated, because they are - just as is the feeling of hunger- a necessary condition for the preservation of this already arisen body.

(12) Repetition-condition (āsevana-paccaya) refers to the karmical consciousness, in which each time the preceding impulsive moments (javana-citta, q.v.) are for all the succeeding ones a condition by way of repetition and frequency, just as in learning by heart, through constant repetition, the later recitation becomes gradually easier and easier.

(13) Karma-condition (kamma-paccaya). The pre-natal karma (i.e karma-volitions, kamma-cetanā, in a previous birth) is the generating condition (cause) of the 5 sense-organs, the fivefold sense-consciousness, and the other karma-produced mental and corporeal phenomena in a later birth. - Karmical volition is also a condition by way of karma for the co-nascent mental phenomena associated therewith, but these phenomena are in no way karma-results.

(14) Karma-result-condition (vipāka-paccaya). The karma-resultant 5 kinds of sense-consciousness are a condition by way of karma-result for the co-nascent mental and corporeal phenomena.

(15) Nutriment-condition (āhāra-paccaya). For the 4 nutriments, s. āhāra.

(16) Faculty-condition (indriya-paccaya). This condition applies to 20 faculties (indriya), leaving out No. 7 and 8 from the 22 faculties. Of these 20 faculties, the 5 physical sense-organs (1 - 5), in their capacity as faculties, form a condition only for uncorporeal phenomena (eye-consciousness etc.); physical vitality (6) and all the remaining faculties, for the co-nascent mental and corporeal phenomena.

(17) Jhāna-condition (jhāna-paccaya) is a name for the 7 so-called jhāna-factors, as these form a condition to the co-nascent mental and corporeal phenomena, to wit:

(1) thought-conception (vitakka),
(2) discursive thinking (vicāra),
(3) interest (pīti),
(4) joy (sukha),
(5) sadness (domanassa),
(6) indifference (upekkhā),
(7) concentration (samādhi). (For definition s. Pāli terms)

1, 2, 3, 4, 7 are found in 4 classes of greedy consciousness (s. Tab.I. 22-25); 1, 2, 5, 7 in hateful consciousness (Tab.I.30, 31); 1, 2, 6, 7 in the classes of deluded consciousness (Tab.I.32, 33).

This condition does not only apply to jhāna alone, but also to the general intensifying ('absorbing') impact of these 7 factors.

(18) Path-condition (magga-paccaya) refers to the 12 path-factors, as these are for the karmically wholesome and unwholesome mental phenomena associated with them, a way of escape from this or that mental constitution, namely:

(1) knowledge (paññā = sammāditthi, right understanding),
(2) (right or wrong) thought-conception (vitakka),
(3) right speech (sammā-vācā),
(4) right bodily action (sammā-kammanta),
(5) right livelihood (sammā-ājīva),
(6) (right or wrong) energy (viriya),
(7) (right or wrong) mindfulness (sati),
(8) (right or wrong) concentration (samādhi),
(9) wrong views (micchāditthi),
(10) wrong speech (micchā-vācā),
(11) wrong bodily action (micchā-kammanta),
(12) wrong livelihood (micchā-ājīva). Cf. magga.

(19) Association-condition (sampayutta-paccaya) refers to the co-nascent (s. 6) and mutually (s. 7) conditioned 4 mental groups (khandha), "as they aid each other by their being associated, by having a common physical base, a common object, and by their arising and disappearing simultaneously" (Patth. Com.).

(20) Dissociation-condition (vippayutta-paccaya) refers to such phenomena as aid other phenomena by not having the same physical base (eye, etc.) and objects. Thus corporeal phenomena are for mental phenomena, and conversely, a condition by way of dissociation, whether co-nascent or not.

(2l) Presence-condition (atthi-paccaya) refers to a phenomenon - being pre-nascent or co-nascent - which through its presence is a condition for other phenomena. This condition applies to the conditions Nos. 6, 7, 8, 10, 11.

(22) Absence-condition (natthi-paccaya) refers to consciousness, etc., which has just passed, and which thus forms the necessary condition for the immediately following stage of consciousness by giving it an opportunity to arise. Cf. No. 4.

(23) Disappearance-condition (vigata-paccaya) is identical with No. 22.

(24) Non-disappearance-condition (avigata-paccaya) is identical with No. 21.

These 24 conditions should be known thoroughly for a detailed understanding of that famous formula of the dependent origination (paticcasamuppāda). Cf. Fund. III, Guide p. 117 ff. (App.) .

See The Significance of Dependent Origination, by Nyanatiloka (WHEEL 140).
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