Imo, in the astronomy of the times during and prior to what are attributed within "Buddhism" as being related to the life of the "Buddha", the 32 marks were anthropomorphized representations of 28 asterisms (small constellations) plus the 4 cardinal directions (known as winds, realms, influences, etc...in other cultures). Various premodern cultures anthropomorphized them differently...for example in Chinese astronomy the 28 asterisms were called "officials" and given anthropomorphized names, as were the 4 cardinal directions which were known as "Ministers". Combined, these 32 "dignitaries" represented an anthropomorphized celestial "body" or "being" known as the "Monarch". This anthropomorphized Monarch, officials, and Ministers who lived in the "royal court" were the basis of much so-called classical Chinese "fiction" - in the last decade these characters and events have clearly been revealed by scholars as symbolic elements of Chinese astronomy and astronomical processes (and not a "fictional" account of actual humans beings involved in earthly historical events, as was previously believed in decades past)
What we understand as "Buddhism" is one part of a more inclusive and much older world view - it is what's left after the astronomy component was severed from the larger body of knowledge that was known in nearly all advanced premodern cultures - the severed earthly component has evolved into what is now known as "Buddhism" - prior to this severing, what evolved into "Buddhism" was regarded as the earthly counterpart or reflection of the celestial realm and the movements of the heavens...'as above, so below" - also common to all premodern advanced world views. What is commonly known now as the "Buddha" is a stripped down version of the celestial Monarch, Supreme Being, Great Man, Celestial Body, or "The Heavenly Throne" - all of which represented a particular astro-mathematical region/composite of the heavens. Various names are found in all premodern cultures for various manifestations of this celestial "great being" as it transformed and reshaped over vast periods of times.
Vision is Mind
Mind is Empty
Emptiness is Clear Light
Clear Light is Union
Union is Great Bliss
- Dawa Gyaltsen
Disclaimer: I'm a non-religious practitioner of Theravada, Mahayana/Vajrayana, and Tibetan Bon Dzogchen mind-training.