Satori wrote:Well , if Buddhists believe that things happen because of causes and conditions , then craving alone cannot be solely responsible for suffering.
In general there are multiple causes and conditions. A key question is whether a cause is necessary
, in which case, if it is removed then the result does not occur.
Satori wrote:BTW, do Buddhists include physical pain as a form of suffering? A woman, said that pain is suffering only by the way we react to it and that if we react to it in a wholesome way its not suffering. But in the English language , the word suffering can be applied to physical problems, for example: She is suffering from cancer, or he is suffering from stomach pain, etc. Most people in the West would class this as a form of suffering. Would Buddhists not? Is it because no word is a satisfactory translation in English?
Dukkha is used in a variety of ways in the Suttas. This dictionary can be useful: http://what-buddha-said.net/library/Bud ... htm#dukkha
Dukkha: 1 'pain', painful feeling, which may be bodily and mental see: vedanā
2 'Suffering', 'ill'. As the first of the Four Noble Truths see: sacca and the second of the three characteristics of existence see: ti-lakkhana the term dukkha is not limited to painful experience as under 1, but refers to the unsatisfactory nature and the general insecurity of all conditioned phenomena which, on account of their impermanence, are all liable to suffering, and this includes also pleasurable experience. Hence 'unsatisfactoriness' or 'liability to suffering' would be more adequate renderings, if not for stylistic reasons. Hence the first truth does not deny the existence of pleasurable experience, as is sometimes wrongly assumed. This is illustrated by the following texts:
;Seeking satisfaction in the world, Bhikkhus, I had pursued my way. That satisfaction in the world I found. In so far as satisfaction existed in the world, I have well perceived it by understanding. Seeking for misery in the world, Bhikkhus, I had pursued my way. That misery in the world I found. In so far as misery existed in the world, I have well perceived it by understanding. Seeking for the escape from the world, Bhikkhus, I had pursued my way. That escape from the world I found. In so far as an escape from the world existed, I have well perceived it by understanding; A. 111, 101.
;If there were no satisfaction to be found in the world, beings would not be attached to the world. If there were no misery to be found in the world, beings would not be repelled by the world. If there were no escape from the world, beings could not escape therefrom; A. 111, 102.
See dukkhatā For texts on the Truth of Suffering, see W. of B. and 'path'.