Some passages from Abhidhamma in Daily Life

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Some passages from Abhidhamma in Daily Life

Postby phil » Fri Aug 22, 2014 12:56 pm

Dear all

I will occasionally post passages from Abhidhamma in Daily Life by Nina Van Gorkom, which can be found online if you don't have the book edition. I will do it in a pretty random way, just passages that I want to review personally. Hopefully of interest to others. (I will try to avoid any passages that may spark debates about practice/application etc.)

Please feel free to raise any questions etc. We will be able to ask Nina for clarification if need be.

from Chapter One: The Four Paramattha Dhammas.

There are two kinds of reality: mental phenomena (nama) and physical phenomena (rupa). Nama experiences something; rupa does not experience anything. Seeing is, for example, a type of nama; it experiences visible object. Visible object itself is rupa; it does not experience anything. What we take for self are only nama and rupa which arise and fall away. The 'Visuddhimagga' ('Path of Purity', a commentary) explains (Ch. XVIII, 25):

For this has been said:
- 'As with the assembly of parts.
The word "chariot" is countenanced,
So, When the khandhas are present,
'A being' is said in common usage'
(Kindred Sayings I, 135).

The five khandhas (aggregates) are nothing else but nama and rupa ... So in many hundred suttas there is only mentality-materiality which is illustrated, not a being, not a person. Therefore, just as when the component parts (of a chariot) such as axles, wheels, frame, poles...
are arranged in a certain way, there comes to be the mere conventional term 'chariot', yet in the ultimate sense, when each part is examined, there is no chariot, ...so too,... there comes to be the mere conventional term 'a being', 'a person', yet in the ultimate sense, when each component is examined, there is no being as a basis for the assumption ' I am' or ' I ' ; in the ultimate sense there is only mentality-materiality. The vision of one who sees in this way is called correct vision.(ADL,p.4, quoting visudimaggha)
Kammalakkhano , bhikkhave, bālo, kammalakkhano pandito, apadānasobhanī paññāti
(The fool is characterized by his/her actions/the wise one is characterized by his/her actions/Wisdom shines forth in behaviour.)
(AN 3.2 Lakkhana Sutta)

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Re: Some passages from Abhidhamma in Daily Life

Postby randall » Sat Aug 23, 2014 2:31 am

thanks for sharing phil.

it truly is a great thing when we can see things on a more dissected level, it helps to take the attachment away, letting us let go of the whole "i-making". The trick is how long can we maintain such awareness before we go back to our habitual selves.


As for an analyses of citta, the first of the four paramatta dhammas, and a mixture of the five aggregates or paramattha dhamma (I guess depending on how you look at it?) the dhammasangani (Matika, Duka 56: Citta Duka) states:

(i) (1193). What are the dhamma which are mind (citta)?

There are Eye-consciousness, Ear-consciousness, Nose-consciousness, Tongue-consciousness, Body-consciousness,
Mind-element and Mind-consciousness-element.
~These are the dhamma which are mind.


(ii) (1194). what are the dhamma which are not mind?

There are the aggregate of Sensation, the aggregate of Perception, the aggregate of Volitional Activities;
there is all that is Corporeality; and there is also the Unconditioned Element (Nibbana).
~These are the dhamma which are not mind.



When we analyze the different cittas, we have:
: Eye,Ear,Nose,Tongue,Body consciousness that includes both kusala and akusala (10 cittas)
: Mind-element = 5 door adverting, receiving consciousness that includes both kusala and akusala (3 cittas)
: Mind-consciousness-element = all remaining cittas (76 cittas)
: giving us 89 cittas in total...

All cittas are both "chief/leader" and associated with the Volitional Activities, Sensation and Perception giving us nama (translated sometimes as name, mental phenomena, and mentality). I guess you can say "it's stuck like white on rice!"



I look forward to reading some more passages!





edit: I wrote this before falling asleep after a long day, my apologies if it seems drifted from the topic?
"Bhikkhus, possessing five factors, speech is well spoken, not badly spoken; it is blameless and beyond reproach by the wise. What five? It is spoken at the proper time; what is said is true; it is spoken gently; what is said is beneficial; it is spoken with a mind of loving-kindness. Possessing these five factors, speech is well spoken, not badly spoken; it is blameless and beyond reproach by the wise."
AN 5 198

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Re: Some passages from Abhidhamma in Daily Life

Postby phil » Sat Aug 23, 2014 4:40 pm

Thanks Randall.

Feel free everyone to bounce off what I post with anything Abhidhamma related. Don't be concerned about whether it is on topic or not. (Stay within forum guidelines, though.) As long as it gets things down to the paramattha level.

Phil
Kammalakkhano , bhikkhave, bālo, kammalakkhano pandito, apadānasobhanī paññāti
(The fool is characterized by his/her actions/the wise one is characterized by his/her actions/Wisdom shines forth in behaviour.)
(AN 3.2 Lakkhana Sutta)

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Re: Some passages from Abhidhamma in Daily Life

Postby phil » Sat Aug 23, 2014 11:13 pm

Dear all

Continuing with another passage from Ch.1 of Abhidhamma in Daily Life by Nina Van Gorkom, available online:


Nama and rupa are different types of realities. If we do not distinguish them from each other and learn the characteristic of each we will continue to take them for self. For example, hearing is nama; it has no form or shape. Hearing is different from ear-sense, but it has ear-sense as a necessary condition. The nama which hears experiences sound. Ear-sense and sound are rupas, which do not experience anything; they are entirely different from the nama which hears. If we do not learn that hearing, ear-sense and sound are realities which are altogether different from each other, we will continue to think that it is self which hears.

The 'Visuddhimagga' (XVIII, 34) explains:

Furthermore, nama has no efficient power, it cannot occur by its own efficient power... It does not eat, it does not drink, it does not speak, it does not adopt postures. And rupa is without efficient power; it cannot occur by its own efficient power. For it has no desire to eat, it has no desire to drink, it has no desire to speak, it has no desire to adopt postures. But rather it is when supported by rupa that nama occurs; and it is when supported by nama that rupa occurs. When nama has the desire to eat, the desire to drink, the desire to speak, the desire to adopt a posture, it is rupa that eats, drinks, speaks and adopts a posture....(p.5)
Kammalakkhano , bhikkhave, bālo, kammalakkhano pandito, apadānasobhanī paññāti
(The fool is characterized by his/her actions/the wise one is characterized by his/her actions/Wisdom shines forth in behaviour.)
(AN 3.2 Lakkhana Sutta)

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Re: Some passages from Abhidhamma in Daily Life

Postby phil » Wed Aug 27, 2014 3:56 am

Hello all

Today's passage:

As regards citta, citta knows or experiences an object. Each citta must have its object of knowing, in Pali: arammana. The citta which sees has what is visible as its object. The citta which hears (hearing-consciousness) has sound as its object. There isn't any citta without an object (arammana). Even when we are sound asleep, citta experiences an object.(p.6)


phil
Kammalakkhano , bhikkhave, bālo, kammalakkhano pandito, apadānasobhanī paññāti
(The fool is characterized by his/her actions/the wise one is characterized by his/her actions/Wisdom shines forth in behaviour.)
(AN 3.2 Lakkhana Sutta)

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Re: Some passages from Abhidhamma in Daily Life

Postby phil » Fri Aug 29, 2014 12:09 pm

Hello All:

It is important to know which jati a citta is. We cannot develop wholesomeness in our life if we take akusala for kusala or if we take akusala for vipaka. For instance, when we hear unpleasant words, the moment of experiencing the sound (hearing-consciousness) is akusala vipaka, the result of an unwholesome deed we performed ourselves. But the aversion which may arise very shortly afterwards is not vipaka, but it arises with akusala citta. (7)


phil
Kammalakkhano , bhikkhave, bālo, kammalakkhano pandito, apadānasobhanī paññāti
(The fool is characterized by his/her actions/the wise one is characterized by his/her actions/Wisdom shines forth in behaviour.)
(AN 3.2 Lakkhana Sutta)

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Re: Some passages from Abhidhamma in Daily Life

Postby Lazy_eye » Fri Aug 29, 2014 12:34 pm

phil wrote:Hello All:

It is important to know which jati a citta is. We cannot develop wholesomeness in our life if we take akusala for kusala or if we take akusala for vipaka. For instance, when we hear unpleasant words, the moment of experiencing the sound (hearing-consciousness) is akusala vipaka, the result of an unwholesome deed we performed ourselves. But the aversion which may arise very shortly afterwards is not vipaka, but it arises with akusala citta. (7)


phil


Wondering if I understand this correctly. She is not saying that our unwholesome kamma caused somebody to say unpleasant words to us.

She is saying that our experience of hearing those words (of being offended or distressed because of them) is reflective of a mental state conditioned by unwholesome kamma. That is, if we were arahants, for instance, they would be no more unpleasant than the sound of a pebble dropping into the water.

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Re: Some passages from Abhidhamma in Daily Life

Postby robertk » Sat Aug 30, 2014 4:49 am

Vipaka is a completely different jati from akusala kamma.
This thread has some details
viewtopic.php?f=18&t=336&p=3220&hilit=Gorkom#p3220

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Re: Some passages from Abhidhamma in Daily Life

Postby phil » Mon Sep 01, 2014 12:31 pm

Dear all

Another passage from Chapter 1 of Abhidhamma in Daily Life:

Another way of classifying citta is by plane of consciousness (bhumi). There are four different planes of consciousness: kamavacara citta, rupavacara citta, arupavacara citta, lokuttara citta.

The sensuous plane of consciousness (kamavacara cittas) is the plane of sense-impressions, for examples: seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting and receiving impressions through the body-sense. There are other planes of citta which do not experience sense-impressions. Those who cultivate samatha (tranquil meditation) and attain absorption (jhana), have jhanacittas. The jhanacitta is another plane of citta; it does not experience sense-impressions. The lokuttara citta ('supramundane' consciousness) is the highest plane of consciousness because it is the citta which directly experiences nibbana (7).


phil
Kammalakkhano , bhikkhave, bālo, kammalakkhano pandito, apadānasobhanī paññāti
(The fool is characterized by his/her actions/the wise one is characterized by his/her actions/Wisdom shines forth in behaviour.)
(AN 3.2 Lakkhana Sutta)

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Re: Some passages from Abhidhamma in Daily Life

Postby phil » Wed Sep 03, 2014 6:27 pm

Hello all. Here is today's passage:

There is only one citta at a time, but there are several cetasikas (at least seven) arising together with the citta and falling away together with the citta, citta never arises alone. For example, feeling, in Pali: vedana, is a cetasika which arises with every citta. Citta only knows or experiences its object; it does not feel. Vedana, however, has the function of feeling.


phil
Kammalakkhano , bhikkhave, bālo, kammalakkhano pandito, apadānasobhanī paññāti
(The fool is characterized by his/her actions/the wise one is characterized by his/her actions/Wisdom shines forth in behaviour.)
(AN 3.2 Lakkhana Sutta)

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Re: Some passages from Abhidhamma in Daily Life

Postby Spiny Norman » Wed Sep 03, 2014 6:37 pm

phil wrote:
As regards citta, citta knows or experiences an object. Each citta must have its object of knowing, in Pali: arammana. The citta which sees has what is visible as its object. The citta which hears (hearing-consciousness) has sound as its object. There isn't any citta without an object (arammana). Even when we are sound asleep, citta experiences an object.(p.6)



I assume that citta is synonymous with vinnana here, so for example ear-consciousness is a type of citta?

Also, what's the practical difference between citta and sanna in knowing an object?
"I ride tandem with the random, Things don't run the way I planned them, In the humdrum."
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Re: Some passages from Abhidhamma in Daily Life

Postby phil » Fri Sep 05, 2014 11:23 pm

Spiny Norman wrote:
phil wrote:
As regards citta, citta knows or experiences an object. Each citta must have its object of knowing, in Pali: arammana. The citta which sees has what is visible as its object. The citta which hears (hearing-consciousness) has sound as its object. There isn't any citta without an object (arammana). Even when we are sound asleep, citta experiences an object.(p.6)



I assume that citta is synonymous with vinnana here, so for example ear-consciousness is a type of citta?

Also, what's the practical difference between citta and sanna in knowing an object?


Yes, if I understand correctly citta is sometimes used just for vinnana, and sometimes for vinnana and the accompanying cetasikas. So when we reflect on the teachings that the mind is the leader etc. we can reflect on both aspects in my opinion..happy to be corrected, though.
Kammalakkhano , bhikkhave, bālo, kammalakkhano pandito, apadānasobhanī paññāti
(The fool is characterized by his/her actions/the wise one is characterized by his/her actions/Wisdom shines forth in behaviour.)
(AN 3.2 Lakkhana Sutta)

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Re: Some passages from Abhidhamma in Daily Life

Postby phil » Sat Sep 06, 2014 9:35 pm

Dear all, continuing with Chapter 1..

The second paramattha dhamma is cetasika which is nama. As we have seen, citta experiences an object: seeing has what is visible as its object, hearing has sound as its object, thinking has what is thought about as its object. However, there is not only citta, there are also mental factors, cetasikas, which accompany a citta. One can think of something with aversion, with a pleasant feeling, with wisdom. Aversion, feeling and wisdom are mental phenomena which are not citta; they are cetasikas which accompany different cittas. There is only one citta at a time, but there are several cetasikas (at least seven) arising together with the citta and falling away together with the citta, citta never arises alone.


Phil
Kammalakkhano , bhikkhave, bālo, kammalakkhano pandito, apadānasobhanī paññāti
(The fool is characterized by his/her actions/the wise one is characterized by his/her actions/Wisdom shines forth in behaviour.)
(AN 3.2 Lakkhana Sutta)

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Re: Some passages from Abhidhamma in Daily Life

Postby phil » Tue Sep 09, 2014 7:54 pm

Dear all, another passage from Abhidhamma in Daily Life:

Although citta and cetasika are both nama, they each have different qualities. One may wonder how cetasikas can be experienced. When we notice a change in citta, a characteristic of cetasika can be experienced. For instance, when akusala cittas with stinginess arise after kusala cittas with generosity have fallen away, we can notice a change. Stinginess and generosity are cetasikas which can be experienced; they have different characteristics. We may notice as well the change from attachment to aversion, from pleasant feeling to unpleasant feeling. Feeling is a cetasika we can experience, because feeling is sometimes predominant and there are different kinds of feeling. We can experience that unpleasant feeling is different from pleasant and neutral feeling. These different cetasikas arise with different cittas and they fall away immediately, together with the citta they accompany. If we know more about the variety of citta and cetasika, it will help us to see the truth.


phil
Kammalakkhano , bhikkhave, bālo, kammalakkhano pandito, apadānasobhanī paññāti
(The fool is characterized by his/her actions/the wise one is characterized by his/her actions/Wisdom shines forth in behaviour.)
(AN 3.2 Lakkhana Sutta)

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Re: Some passages from Abhidhamma in Daily Life

Postby phil » Fri Sep 12, 2014 9:46 am

Dear all, another passage from Abhidhamma in Daily LIfe by Nina Van Gorkom

There are not only mental phenomena, there are also physical phenomena. Physical phenomena (rupa) are the third paramattha dhamma. There are altogether twenty-eight classes of rupa. There are four principal rupas or 'Great Elements', in Pali: maha-bhuta-rupa. They are:

1. 'Element of Earth' or solidity (to be experienced as hardness or softness)
2. 'Element of Water' or cohesion
3. 'Element of Fire' or temperature (to be experienced as heat or cold)
4. 'Element of Wind' or motion (to be experienced as motion or pressure)

These 'Great Elements' arise together with all the other kinds of rupa, in Pali: upada-rupa. Rupas never arise alone. They arise in 'groups' or 'units'. There have to be at least eight kinds of rupa arising together. For example, whenever the rupa which is temperature arises, solidity, cohesion, motion and other rupas arise as well. Upada-rupas are, for examples, the physical sense-organs of eye-sense, ear-sense, smelling-sense, tasting-sense and body-sense, and the sense-objects of visible object, sound, odour and flavour.(


phil
Kammalakkhano , bhikkhave, bālo, kammalakkhano pandito, apadānasobhanī paññāti
(The fool is characterized by his/her actions/the wise one is characterized by his/her actions/Wisdom shines forth in behaviour.)
(AN 3.2 Lakkhana Sutta)

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Re: Some passages from Abhidhamma in Daily Life

Postby phil » Mon Sep 15, 2014 1:04 am

Hi all,
Another passage from Abhidhamma in Daily Life:

Citta, cetasika and rupa only arise when there are the right conditions, they are conditioned dhammas (in Pali: sankhara dhamma). Seeing cannot arise when there is no eye-sense and when there is no visible object. Sound can only arise when there are the right conditions for its arising. When it has arisen it falls away again. Everything which arises because of conditions has to fall away again when the conditions have ceased. One may think that sound stays, but what we take for a long, lasting moment of sound is actually many different rupas succeeding one another.


I might modify that last point slightly, not only a sound which seems to be long-lasting but any sound that we perceive - even the shortest possible little blip of sound - is made of many many many rupas rising and falling away, although rupa rises and falls away less swiftly than nama. ( one rupa for 17 mind moments?)

Phil
Kammalakkhano , bhikkhave, bālo, kammalakkhano pandito, apadānasobhanī paññāti
(The fool is characterized by his/her actions/the wise one is characterized by his/her actions/Wisdom shines forth in behaviour.)
(AN 3.2 Lakkhana Sutta)

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Re: Some passages from Abhidhamma in Daily Life

Postby phil » Wed Sep 17, 2014 2:55 am

Hi all. Final passage from chapter 1 with a description of the fourth kind of paramattha dhamma, after citta, cetasika and rupa:

The fourth paramattha dhamma is nibbana. Nibbana is the end of defilements. Nibbana can be experienced through the mind-door if one follows the right Path leading towards it: the development of the wisdom which sees things as they are. Nibbana is nama. However, it is not citta or cetasika. Nibbbna is the nama which does not arise and fall away; it is the nama which is an unconditioned reality (in Pali:visankhara dhamma). It does not arise, because it is unconditioned and therefore it does not fall away. Citta and cetasika are namas which experience an object; nibbana is the nama which does not experience an object, but nibbana itself can be the object of citta and cetasika which experience it, Nibbana is not a person, it is not-self; it is anatta.


Phil
Kammalakkhano , bhikkhave, bālo, kammalakkhano pandito, apadānasobhanī paññāti
(The fool is characterized by his/her actions/the wise one is characterized by his/her actions/Wisdom shines forth in behaviour.)
(AN 3.2 Lakkhana Sutta)

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Re: Some passages from Abhidhamma in Daily Life

Postby phil » Tue Sep 23, 2014 1:33 am

Hi all
Moving on to passages from Ch. 2:

The fifty-two kinds of cetasika are classified as three khandhas: a cetasika
which is feeling (vedana) is classified as one khandha, the vedanakkhandha; a
cetasika which is perception (sanna) is classified as one khandha, the sannakkhandha; as regards the other tiny cetasikas, they are classified all together as one khandha, the sankharakkhandha. For example, in sankharakkhandha are included the following cetasikas: 'intention' (cetana), attachment (lobha), aversion (dosa), ignorance (moha), lovingkindness (metta), generosity (alobha) and wisdom (panna). Sankharakkhandha is sometimes translated as 'activities' or ‘mental formations'.


"Tiny" doesn't seem like quite the right word...

Phil
Kammalakkhano , bhikkhave, bālo, kammalakkhano pandito, apadānasobhanī paññāti
(The fool is characterized by his/her actions/the wise one is characterized by his/her actions/Wisdom shines forth in behaviour.)
(AN 3.2 Lakkhana Sutta)

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Re: Some passages from Abhidhamma in Daily Life

Postby phil » Fri Sep 26, 2014 6:22 pm

Hi all

Carrying on with some passages from Chapter 2:

As regards citta, all cittas are one khandha: vinnanakkhandha. The Pali terms
vinnana, mano and citta are three terms for the same reality: that which has the
characteristic of knowing or experiencing something. When citta is classified as
khandha the word vinnana is used.


It seems to me that mano is often used in the sense of citta and cetasika together. For example when we hear that mind is the leader etc. like the ox and the cart wheel it might be used in this sense but that is just my guess, happy to have it corrected.
Kammalakkhano , bhikkhave, bālo, kammalakkhano pandito, apadānasobhanī paññāti
(The fool is characterized by his/her actions/the wise one is characterized by his/her actions/Wisdom shines forth in behaviour.)
(AN 3.2 Lakkhana Sutta)

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Re: Some passages from Abhidhamma in Daily Life

Postby phil » Mon Sep 29, 2014 6:15 am

Hi all

Our next passage:

The ‘visuddhimagga' (XX,96) explains about the arising and falling away of
nama and rupa:

There is no heap or store of unarisen nama-rupa
(existing) prior to its arising. When it arises it does
not come from any heap or store; and when it ceases.
it does not go in any direction. There is nowhere any
depositor in the way of a heap or store or hoard of
what has ceased. But just as there is no store, prior
to its arising, of the sound that arises when a lute
is played, nor does it come from any store when it
arises, nor does it go in any direction when it ceases,
nor does it persist as a store when it has ceased, but
on the contrary, not having been, it is brought into
being owing to the lute, the lute's neck, and the man's
appropriate effort, and having been, it vanishes - - so
too all material and immaterial states (rupa and nama),
not having been, are brought into being, having been,
they vanish.


Phil
Kammalakkhano , bhikkhave, bālo, kammalakkhano pandito, apadānasobhanī paññāti
(The fool is characterized by his/her actions/the wise one is characterized by his/her actions/Wisdom shines forth in behaviour.)
(AN 3.2 Lakkhana Sutta)


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