Discussion of Abhidhamma and related Commentaries
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Abhidhamma View : Jhaana and Magga Factors
[Presented by Dr.Tep Sastri @ SariputtaDhamma/JTN/Mult] CMA VII, p. 272-273:
The seven jhaana factors are: 1. initial application (vitakka), 2. sustained application(vicaara), 3. zest (piiti), 4. one-pointedness(ekaggata), 5. joy(somanassa), 6. displeasure(domanassa), 7. equanimity(upekkha).
The word jhaana is not used here in the sense of meditative absorption, but in the broader sense of close contemplation(upanijjhaayana) of an object. ... These seven cetasikas are called jhaana factors because they enable the mind to closely contemplate its object. Of them, displeasure is exclusively unwholesome and occurs only in the two cittas connected with aversion. The other six can be wholesome, unwholesome, or indeterminate, depending on the citta in which they occur.Twelve path factors are: 1. right view, 2. right intention, 3. right speech, 4. right action, 5. right livelihood, 6. right effort, 7. right mindfulness, 8. right concentration, 9. wrong views, 10. wrong intention, 11. wrong effort, 12. wrong concentration.
Here the word "path" is used in the sense that which leads to a particular destination, that is, towards the blissful states of existence, the woeful states, and nibbaana. Of the twelve factors, the first eight lead to the blissful states and nibbaana, the last four leads to woeful states.These twelve path factors can be reduced to nine cetasikas. Right view is the cetasika of wisdom. Right intention, right effort, right mindfulness and right concentration are, respectively, the cetasikas of initial application, energy, mindfulness, and one-pointedness found in the wholesome and indeterminate cittas with roots. Right speech, right action, and right livelihood are the three abstinences(virati) found collectively in the supramundane cittas and separately on particular occasions in mundane wholesome cittas.Of the four wrong path factors, wrong view is the cetasika of views, and is the only exclusively unwholesome cetasikas among the path factors. The other three factors are , in order, the cetasikas of initial application, energy, and one-pointedness in the unwholesome cittas. There are no distinct path factors of wrong speech, wrong action, and wrong livelihood, since these are simply unwholesome modes of conduct motivated by defilements. There is no factor of wrong mindfulness, since mindfulness is an exclusively beautiful cetasika absent in the unwholesome cittas.
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