Pali Term: Aparitassanā

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Pali Term: Aparitassanā

Postby Dmytro » Wed Mar 06, 2013 1:20 pm

Hello Pali friends,

First, the explanation of this term in the suttas.

Aparitassanā (non-agitation) is almost always described as having non-appropriation as a necessary condition.

As described in Upādā-paritassanā sutta:

‘‘Kathañca, bhikkhave, anupādāaparitassanā hoti? Idha, bhikkhave, sutavā ariyasāvako ariyānaṃ dassāvī ariyadhammassa kovido ariyadhamme suvinīto, sappurisānaṃ dassāvī sappurisadhammassa kovido sappurisadhamme suvinīto na rūpaṃ attato samanupassati, na rūpavantaṃ vā attānaṃ; na attani vā rūpaṃ, na rūpasmiṃ vā attānaṃ. Tassa taṃ rūpaṃ vipariṇamati aññathā hoti. Tassa rūpavipariṇāmaññathābhāvā na rūpavipariṇāmānuparivatti viññāṇaṃ hoti. Tassa na rūpavipariṇāmānuparivattijā paritassanā dhammasamuppādā cittaṃ pariyādāya tiṭṭhanti. Cetaso apariyādānā na cevuttāsavā hoti na ca vighātavā na ca apekkhavā, anupādāya ca na paritassati.

"And how, bhikkhus, is there nonagitation through non-appropriation? Here, bhikkhus, the instructed noble disciple, who is a seer of the noble ones and is skilled and disciplined in their Dhamma, who is a seer of superior persons and is skilled and disciplined in their Dhamma, does not regard form as self, or self as possessing form, or form as in self, or self as in form. That form (body) of his changes and alters. Despite the change and alteration of form, his consciousness does not become preoccupied with the change of the form. No agitation and constellation of mental states born of preoccupation with the change of form remain obsessing his mind. Because his mind is not obsessed, he is not frightened, distressed, or anxious, and through non-appropriation he does not become agitated.

‘‘Na vedanaṃ …pe… na saññaṃ…pe… na saṅkhāre …pe… na viññāṇaṃ attato samanupassati, na viññāṇavantaṃ vā attānaṃ; na attani vā viññāṇaṃ, na viññāṇasmiṃ vā attānaṃ. Tassa taṃ viññāṇaṃ vipariṇamati aññathā hoti. Tassa viññāṇavipariṇāmaññathābhāvā na viññāṇavipariṇāmānuparivatti viññāṇaṃ hoti. Tassa na viññāṇavipariṇāmānuparivattijā paritassanā dhammasamuppādā cittaṃ pariyādāya tiṭṭhanti. Cetaso apariyādānā na cevuttāsavā hoti na ca vighātavā na ca apekkhavā, anupādāya ca na paritassati. Evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, anupādā aparitassanaṃ hotī’’ti.

"He does not regard feeling as self ... recognition as self ... volitions as self ... consciousness as self, or self as possessing consciousness, or consciousness as in self, or self as in consciousness. That consciousness of his changes and alters. Despite the change and alteration of consciousness, his consciousness does not become preoccupied with the change of the form. No agitation and constellation of mental states born of preoccupation with the change of consciousness remain obsessing his mind. Because his mind is not obsessed, he is not frightened, distressed, or anxious, and through non-appropriation he does not become agitated.
"It is in such a way, bhikkhus, that there is nonagitation through non-appropriation."

SN 22.7

This is repeated as part of Uddesa-vibhanga sutta, which begins as:

tathā tathā bhikkhave, bhikkhu upaparikkheyya, yathā yathāssu upaparikkhato bahiddhā cassa viññāṇaṃ avikkhittaṃ avisaṭaṃ ajjhattaṃ asaṇṭhitaṃ anupādāya na paritasseyya. Bahiddhā bhikkhave. Viññāṇe avikkhitte avisaṭe sati ajjhattaṃ asaṇṭhite, anupādāya aparitassato āyatiṃ jātijarāmaraṇadukkhasamudayasambhavo na hotī'ti.

"A monk should investigate in such a way that, his consciousness neither externally scattered & diffused, nor internally positioned, he would from lack of clinging/appropriation be unagitated. When — his consciousness neither externally scattered & diffused, nor internally positioned — from lack of clinging/appropriation he would be unagitated, there is no seed for the conditions of future birth, aging, death, or stress."

МН 138

Alagaduppama sutta:

Siyā pana bhante bahiddhā asati aparitassānāti? Siyā bhikkhūti bhagavā avoca: " idha bhikkhu ekaccassa na evaṃ hoti 'ahu vata me, taṃ vata me natthi, siyā vata me, taṃ vatāhaṃ na labhāmī'ti. So na socati na kilamati na paridevati, na urattāḷiṃ kandati, na sammohaṃ āpajjati. Evaṃ kho bhikkhu bahiddhā asati aparitassanā hotī"ti.

"But, lord, might there be non-agitation over what is externally not present?"

"There might, monk," the Blessed One said. "There is the case where someone doesn't think, 'O, it was mine! O, what was mine is not! O, may it be mine! O, I don't obtain it!' He doesn't grieve, isn't tormented, doesn't weep, beat his breast, or grow delirious. It's thus that there is non-agitation over what is externally not present."

Siyā pana bhante ajjhattaṃ asati aparitassanāti? Siyā bhikkhūti bhagavā avoca: " idha bhikkhu ekaccassa na evaṃ diṭṭhi hoti: 'so loko so attā, so pecca bhavissāmi nicco dhuvo sassato avipariṇāmadhammo. Sassatisamaṃ tatheva ṭhassāmī'ti. So suṇāti tathāgatassa vā tathāgatasāvakassa vā sabbesaṃ diṭṭhiṭṭhānādhiṭṭhānapariyuṭṭhānābhinivesānusayānaṃ samugghātāya sabbasaṅkhārasamathāya sabbūpadhipaṭinissaggāya taṇhakkhayāya virāgāya nirodhāya nibbānāya dhammaṃ desentassa. Tassa na evaṃ hoti: 'ucchijjissāmi nāma su, vinassissāmi nāma su, na su nāma bhavissāmī'ti. So na socati na kilamati na paridevati, na urattāḷiṃ kandati. Na sammohaṃ āpajjati. Evaṃ kho bhikkhu ajjhattaṃ asati aparitassanā hoti."

"But, lord, might there be non-agitation over what is internally not present?"

"There might, monk," the Blessed One said. "There is the case where someone doesn't have this view: 'This cosmos is the self. After death this I will be constant, permanent, eternal, not subject to change. I will stay just like that for an eternity.' He hears a Tathagata or a Tathagata's disciple teaching the Dhamma for the elimination of all view-positions, determinations, biases, inclinations, & obsessions; for the stilling of all fabrications; for the relinquishing of all acquisitions; the ending of craving; dispassion; cessation; Unbinding. The thought doesn't occur to him, 'So it might be that I will be annihilated! So it might be that I will perish! So it might be that I will not exist!' He doesn't grieve, isn't tormented, doesn't weep, beat his breast, or grow delirious. It's thus that there is non-agitation over what is internally not present."

MN 22

Non-agitation leads to Nibbāna, which is described in detail in connection with appatiṭṭhitaṃ viññāṇaṃ:

Rāgassa pahānā vocchijjatārammaṇaṃ, patiṭṭhā viññāṇassa na hoti, tadappatiṭṭhitaṃ viññāṇaṃ avirūḷhaṃ anabhi saṅkhacca vimuttaṃ, vimuttattā ṭhitaṃ ṭhitattā santusitaṃ, santusitattā na paritassati aparitassaṃ paccattaṃ yeva parinibbāyati. 'Khīṇā jāti, vusitaṃ brahmacariyaṃ, kataṃ karaṇīyaṃ, nāparaṃ itthattāyā'ti pajānātīti.

... then owing to the abandonment of passion, the support is cut off, and there is no landing of consciousness. When that consciousness is unestablished, not coming to growth, nongenerative, it is liberated. By being liberated, it is steady; by being steady, it is content; by being content, he is not agitated. Being unagitated, he personally attains nibbāna. He understands: 'Destroyed is birth, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more for this state of being.'

SN 22.53, 54, & 55

Or in the shorter form:

yāyaṃ bhagini samādhi na cābhinato na cāpanato, na sasaṅkhāraniggayha vāritavato, vimuttattā ṭhito, ṭhitattā santusito, santusitattā no paritassati. Ayaṃ bhagini samādhi aññāphalo vutto bhagavatāti. Evaṃ saññīpi kho āvuso tadāyatanaṃ no paṭisaṃvedeti.

Sister, the concentration that does not lean forward and does not bend back, and that is not reigned in and checked by forcefully suppressing [the defilements] -- by being liberated, it is steady; by being steady, it is content; by being content, one is not agitated. The Blessed One said this concentration has final knowledge as its fruit.

AN 9.37

The sequence leading to Nibbāna, in connection with non-appropriation:

"Yato kho panānanda, bhikkhu neva vedanaṃ attānaṃ samanupassati, no pi appaṭisaṃvedanaṃ attānaṃ samanupassati, no pi 'attā me vedayati vedanādhammo hi me attā'ti samanupassati, so evaṃ asamanupassanto na ca kiñci loke upādiyati, anupādiyaṃ na paritassati, aparitassaṃ paccattaṃ yeva parinibbāyissati. Khīṇā jāti, vusitaṃ brahmacariyaṃ, kataṃ karaṇīyaṃ, nāparaṃ itthattāyā'ti pajānāti.

Now, Ananda, in as far as a monk does not assume feeling to be the self, nor the self as oblivious, nor that 'My self feels, in that my self is subject to feeling,' then, not assuming in this way, he does not appropriate anything in the world. Unappropriating, he is not agitated. Unagitated, he is totally unbound right within. He discerns that 'Birth is ended, the holy life fulfilled, the task done. There is nothing further for this world.'

DN 15

Yato ca kho bhikkhave bhikkhuno avijjā pahīṇā hoti vijjā uppannā. So avijjāvirāgā vijjuppādā neva kāmūpādānaṃ upādiyati. Na diṭṭhūpādānaṃ upādiyati. Na sīlabbatūpādānaṃ upādiyati. Na attavādupādānaṃ upādiyati. Anupādiyaṃ na paritassati. Aparitassaṃ paccattaṃyeva parinibbāyati. Khīṇā jāti, vusitaṃ brahmacariyaṃ, kataṃ karaṇīyaṃ, nāparaṃ itthattāyāti pajānātīti.

Bhikkhus, when ignorance is abandoned and true knowledge has arisen in a bhikkhu, then with the fading away of ignorance and the arising of true knowledge he no longer clings to (appropriates) sensual pleasures, no longer clings to views, no longer clings to rules and observances, no longer clings to a doctrine of self. When he does not cling (does not appropriate), he is not agitated. When he is not agitated, he personally attains Nibbana. He understands: 'Birth is destroyed, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming to any state of being.

MN 11

So evaṃ pajānāti: 'imaṃ ce ahaṃ upekkhaṃ evaṃparisuddhaṃ evaṃpariyodātaṃ ākāsānañcāyatanaṃ upasaṃhareyyaṃ, tadanudhammañca cittaṃ bhāveyyaṃ, saṅkhatametaṃ. Imañce ahaṃ upekkhaṃ evaṃparisuddhaṃ evaṃpariyodātaṃ viññāṇañcāyatanaṃ upasaṃhareyyaṃ, kadanudhammañca cittaṃ bhāveyyaṃ, saṅkhatametaṃ. Imaṃ ce ahaṃ upekkhaṃ evaṃparisuddhaṃ evaṃpariyodātaṃ ākiñcaññāyatanaṃ upasaṃhareyyaṃ, tadanudhammañca cittaṃ bhāveyyaṃ, saṅkhatametaṃ. Imañce ahaṃ upekkhaṃ evaṃ parisuddhaṃ evaṃpariyodātaṃ nevasaññānāsañcāyatanaṃ upasaṃhareyyaṃ, tadanudhammañca cittaṃ bhāveyyaṃ, saṅkhatametanti. So neva taṃ abhisaṅkharoti, nābhisañcetayati bhavāya vā vibhavāya vā. So anabhisaṅkharonto anabhisañcetayanto bhavāya vā vibhavāya vā na kiñci loke upādiyati. Anupādiyaṃ na paritassati, aparitassaṃ paccattaṃyeva parinibbāyati. 'Khīṇā jāti, vusitaṃ brahmacariyaṃ, kataṃ karaṇīyaṃ, nāparaṃ itthattāyā'ti pajānāti.

One discerns that 'If I were to direct equanimity as pure & bright as this towards the dimension of the infinitude of space and to develop the mind along those lines, that would be fabricated. One discerns that 'If I were to direct equanimity as pure and bright as this towards the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness... the dimension of nothingness... the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception and to develop the mind along those lines, that would be fabricated.' One neither fabricates nor mentally fashions for the sake of becoming or un-becoming. This being the case, one does not appropriate anything in the world . Unappropriating, one is not agitated. Unagitated, one is totally unbound right within. One discerns that 'Birth is ended, the holy life fulfilled, the task done. There is nothing further for this world.'

MN 140

Evameva kho āvuso bhikkhu chassu phassāyatanesu neva attānaṃ nāttaniyaṃ samanupassati, so evaṃ asamanupassanto na kiñci loke upādiyati, anupādiyaṃ na paritassati, aparitassaṃ paccattaññeva parinibbāyati. Khīṇā jāti, vusitaṃ brahmacariyaṃ, kataṃ karaṇīyaṃ, nāparaṃ itthattāyāti pajānātīti.

"So too, a bhikkhu does not recognize either a self or anything belonging to self in these six bases for contact. Since he does not recognize anything thus, he does not appropriate anything in the world. Not appropriating, he is not agitated. Being unagitated, he personally attains Nibbāna. He understands: 'Destroyed is birth, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more for this state of being.'"

SN 35.193

Sabbaṃ na maññati, sabbasmiṃ na maññati, sabbato na maññati, sabbaṃ meti na maññati. So evaṃ amaññamāno na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Anupādiyaṃ na paritassati. Aparitassaṃ paccattaññeva parinibbāyati. ‘Khīṇā jāti, vusitaṃ brahmacariyaṃ, kataṃ karaṇīyaṃ, nāparaṃ itthattāyā’ti pajānāti. Ayaṃ kho sā, bhikkhave, sabbamaññitasamugghātasāruppā paṭipadā’’ti.

"He does not conceive all, does not conceive in all, does not conceive from all, does not conceive, 'All is mine.'
"Since he does not conceive anything thus, he does not appropriate anything in the world. Not appropriating, he is not agitated. Being unagitated, he personally attains Nibbāna. He understands: 'Destroyed is birth, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more for this state of being.'

SN 35.30 (SN 35.31, 35.90-91)

The sequence is also explained in connection with seven recognitions:

Idha moggallāna, bhikkhuno sutaṃ hoti sabbe dhammā nālaṃ abhinivesāyāti. Evaṃ cetaṃ moggallāna, bhikkhuno sutaṃ hoti sabbe dhammā nālaṃ abhinivesāyāti.

So sabbaṃ dhammaṃ abhijānāti. So sabbaṃ dhammaṃ abhiññāya sabbaṃ dhammaṃ parijānāti. Sabbaṃ dhammaṃ pariññāya yaṃ kiñci vedanaṃ vediyati sukhaṃ vā dukkhaṃ vā adukkhamasukhaṃ vā, so tāsu vedanāsu aniccānupassī viharati, virāgānupassī viharati, nirodhānupassī viharati, paṭinissaggānu passī viharati. So tāsu vedanāsu aniccānupassī viharanto, virāgānupassī viharanto, nirodhānupassī viharanto, paṭinissāggānupassī viharanto na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Anupādiyaṃ na paritassati. Aparitassaṃ paccattaṃyeva parinibbāyati. Khīṇā jāti vusitaṃ brahmacariyaṃ kataṃ karaṇīyaṃ nāparaṃ itthattāyāti pajānāti.

"Here. Moggalāna, a bhikkhu has heard: 'Nothing is worth holding to.' When a bhikkhu has heard: 'Nothing is worth holding to,' he directly knows all things. Having directly known all things, he fully understands all things. Having fully understood all things, whatever feeling he feels - whether pleasant, painful, or neither painful nor pleasant - he dwells contemplating impermanence in those feelings, contemplating dispassion in those feelings, contemplating cessation in those feelings. As he dwells contemplating impermanence ... dispassion ... cessation ... relinquishment in those feelings, he does not appropriate anything anything in the world. Not appropriating, he is not agitated. Being unagitated, he personally attains Nibbāna. He understands: 'Destroyed is birth, the spiritual life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming back to any state of being.'

AN 7.58

May you reach Nibbāna.
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Dmytro
 
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