Pali word of the day

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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Wed May 19, 2010 3:51 am

Saññā

1. 'perception', is one of the 5 groups of existence khandha, and one of the 7 mental properties cetasika that are inseparably bound up with all consciousness see: cetanā It is sixfold as perception of the 5 physical sense-objects and of mental objects. It is the awareness of an object's distinctive marks,one perceives blue, yellow, etc.,; S. XXII, 79. If, in repeated perception of an object, these marks are recognized, saññā functions as 'memory' see: Abh. St., p. 68f..

2. saññā stands sometimes for consciousness in its entirety, e.g. in n'eva-saññā-n'āsaññāyatana 'the realm of neither-perception-nor-non-perception'; further, in asaññā-satta 'unconscious beings'. In both cases reference is not to 'perception' alone, but also to all other constituents of consciousness. Cf. D. 9.

3. saññā may also refer to the 'ideas', which are objects of meditation, e.g. in a group of 7 ideas, of impermanence anicca-s etc. A. VII, 46; of 10: impurity asubha-s etc. A. X, 56, and another set of 10 in A. X. 60; or to wrong notions, as in nicca, subha-s the notion of permanence, beauty, etc.
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby PeterB » Wed May 19, 2010 11:28 am

Its an very useful resource David, as I have said before but it bears repeating.
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby Sekha » Wed May 19, 2010 5:02 pm

David N. Snyder wrote:Sankhāra

The word sankhara is derived from the prefix sam, meaning "together," joined to the noun kara, "doing, making." Sankharas are thus "co-doings," things that act in concert with other things, or things that are made by a combination of other things. Translators have rendered the word in many different ways: formations, confections, activities, processes, forces, compounds, compositions, fabrications, determinations, synergies, constructions. All are clumsy attempts to capture the meaning of a philosophical concept for which we have no exact parallel, and thus all English renderings are bound to be imprecise. I myself use "formations" and "volitional formations," aware this choice is as defective as any other.


more @: http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/auth ... ay_43.html
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Thu May 20, 2010 4:37 am

Khandha

the 5 'groups of existence' or 'groups of clinging' upādānakhandha alternative renderings: aggregates or clusters, categories of clinging's objects. These are the 5 aspects in which the Buddha has summed up all the physical and mental phenomena of existence, and which appear to the ignorant man as his ego, or personality, to wit:

* 1 the materiality group khandha rūpa-khandha,
* 2 the feeling group vedanā-khandha,
* 3 the perception group saññā-khandha,
* 4 the mental-construction group sankhāra-khandha,
* 5 the consciousness-group viññāna-khandha

Whatever there exists of material things, whether past, present or future, one's own or external, gross or subtle, lofty or low, far or near, all that belongs to the materiality group. Whatever there exists of feeling... of perception... of mental constructions... of consciousness... all that belongs to the consciousness-group S. XXII, 48. - Another division is that into the 2 groups: mind 2-5 and materiality 1 nāma-rūpa, whilst in Dhamma Sanganī, the first book of the Abhidhamma, all the phenomena are treated by way of 3 groups: consciousness 5, mental properties 2-4, materiality 1, in Pāli citta cetasika, rūpa

What is called individual existence is in reality nothing but a mere process of those mental and physical phenomena, a process that since time immemorial has been going on, and that also after death will still continue for unthinkably long periods of time. These 5 groups, however, neither singly nor collectively constitute any self-dependent real ego-entity, or personality attā nor is there to be found any such entity apart from them. Hence the belief in such an ego-entity or personality, as real in the ultimate sense, proves a mere illusion.

* When all constituent parts are there,
* The designation 'cart' is used;
* Just so, where the five groups exist,
* Of 'living being' do we speak. S. V. 10.

The fact ought to be emphasized here that these 5 groups, correctly speaking, merely form an abstract classification by the Buddha, but that they as such, i.e. as just these 5 complete groups, have no real existence, since only single representatives of these groups, mostly variable, can arise with any state of consciousness. For example, with one and the same unit of consciousness only one single kind of feeling, say joy or sorrow, can be associated and never more than one. Similarly, two different perceptions cannot arise at the same moment. Also, of the various kinds of sense-cognition or consciousness, only one can be present at a time, for example, seeing, hearing or inner consciousness, etc. Of the 50 mental constructions, however, a smaller or larger number are always associated with every state of consciousness, as we shall see later on.

Some writers on Buddhism who have not understood that the five khandha are just classificatory groupings, have conceived them as compact entities 'heaps', 'bundles', while actually, as stated above, the groups never exist as such, i.e. they never occur in a simultaneous totality of all their constituents. Also those single constituents of a group which are present in any given body-and-mind process, are of an evanescent nature, and so also their varying combinations. Feeling, perception and mental constructions are only different aspects and functions of a single unit of consciousness. They are to consciousness what redness, softness, sweetness, etc. are to an apple and have as little separate existence as those qualities.

In S. XXII, 56, there is the following short definition of these 5 groups:

What, o Bhikkhus, is the materiality-group? The 4 primary elements mahā-bhūta or dhātu and materiality depending thereon, this is called the materiality-group.

What, o Bhikkhus, is the feeling-group? There are 6 classes of feeling: due to visual contact, to sound contact, to odour contact, to taste contact, to bodily contact, and to mind contact.

What, o Bhikkhus, is the perception-group? There are 6 classes of perception: perception of visual objects, of sounds, of odours, of tastes, of bodily contacts, and of mental contacts.

What, o Bhikkhus, is the group of mental constructions? There are 6 classes of intentional states cetanā with regard to visual objects, to sounds, to odours, to tastes, to bodily contacts and to mind objects.

What, o Bhikkhus, is the consciousness-group? There are 6 classes of consciousness: visual-consciousness, ear-consciousness, nose-consciousness, tongue-consciousness, body-consciousness, and mind-consciousness.

About the inseparability of the groups it is said:

Whatever, o brother, there exists of feeling, of perception and of mental constructions, these things are associated, not dissociated, and it is impossible to separate one from the other and show their difference. For whatever one feels, one perceives; and whatever one perceives, of this one is conscious M. 43.

Further: Impossible is it for anyone to explain the passing out of one existence and the entering into a new existence, or the growth, increase and development of consciousness independent of materiality, feeling, perception and mental constructions S. XII, 53

For the inseparability and mutual conditionality of the 4 mental groups see: paccaya 6, 7.

Regarding the impersonality anattā and emptiness suññatā of the 5 groups, it is said in S. XXII, 49:

Whatever there is of materiality, feeling, perception, mental constructions and consciousness, whether past, present or future, one's own or external, gross or subtle, lofty or low, far or near, this one should understand according to reality and true understanding: 'This does not belong to me, this am I not, this is not my Ego.'

Further in S. XXII, 95: Suppose that a man who is not blind were to behold the many bubbles on the Ganges as they are driving along; and he should watch them and carefully examine them. After carefully examining them, however, they will appear to him empty, unreal and unsubstantial. In exactly the same way does the Bhikkhu behold all the material phenomena... feelings... perceptions... mental constructions... states of consciousness, whether they be of the past, present or future... far or near. And he watches them and examines them carefully; and after carefully examining them, they appear to him empty, unreal and unsubstantial.

The 5 groups are compared, respectively, to a lump of froth, a bubble, a mirage, a coreless plantain stem, and a conjuring trick S. XXII, 95.
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby PeterB » Thu May 20, 2010 7:33 am

The literal translation of adinnadana is quite nice , it is " taking the not-given " .
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Thu May 20, 2010 10:20 pm

Āsava

fermentations, taints

See: viewtopic.php?f=23&t=4419
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Thu May 20, 2010 10:21 pm

kāmāsava

The mental fermentation of sense-desire kāmāsava, Ex: 'All is pleasant'
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Thu May 20, 2010 10:21 pm

bhavāsava

The mental fermentation of desiring existence bhavāsava, Ex: 'Being is good'
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Thu May 20, 2010 10:22 pm

ditthāsava

The mental fermentation of wrong views ditthāsava, Ex: 'My opinion is best'
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Thu May 20, 2010 10:23 pm

avijjāsava

The mental fermentation of ignorance avijjāsava. Ex: 'Suffering exists not'
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Sat May 22, 2010 2:31 am

Kāya

lit: accumulation: 'group', 'body', may either refer to the physical body rūpa-kāya or to the mental body nāma-kāya In the latter case it is either a collective name for the mental groups feeling, perception, mental constructions, consciousness; s. khandha or merely for feeling, perception and a few of the mental constructions see: nāma e.g. in kāya-lahutā etc. cf. Tab. II.. kāya has this same meaning in the standard description of the 3rd absorption jhāna and he feels joy in his mind or his mental constitution kāya and e.g. Pug. 1-8 of the attainment of the 8 deliverances vimokkha, having attained the 8 deliverances in his mind, or his person kāya - kāya is also the 5th sense-organ, the body-organ.
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Sun May 23, 2010 2:02 am

Citta

'mind', 'consciousness', 'state of consciousness', is a synonym of mano and viññāna see: khandha (see above). Dhs divides all phenomena into consciousness citta mental properties cetasika and materiality rupa.

In adhicitta-sikkha 'higher mentality', it signifies the concentrated, quietened mind, and is one of the 3 trainings. The concentration or intensification of consciousness is one of the 4 roads to power.
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Sun May 23, 2010 2:04 am

related term:

Cetasika

'mental things, mental properties', are those mental properties which are bound up with the simultaneously arising consciousness citta = viññāna and conditioned by its presence. Whereas in the Suttas all phenomena of existence are summed up under the aspect of 5 groups: materiality, feeling, perception, mental constructions, consciousness see: khandha the Abhidhamma as a rule treats them under the more philosophical 3 aspects: consciousness, mental properties and materiality citta, cetasika, rūpa Thus, of these 3 aspects, the mental properties cetasika comprise feeling, perception and the 50 mental constructions, altogether 52 mental properties. Of these, 25 are lofty qualities either kammically advantageous or neutral, 14 kammically disadvantageous, while 13 are as such kammically neutral, their kammical quality depending on whether they are associated with advantageous, disadvantageous or neutral consciousness.
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Sun May 23, 2010 11:54 pm

nekkhamma

'freedom from sensual lust', renunciation. Though apparently from nir + Ö kram 'to go forth into the homeless state of a monk', this term is in the Pāli texts nevertheless used as if it were derived from kāma lust, and always as an antonym to kāma It is one of the perfections see: pāramī sankappa thought free from lust, or thought of renunciation, is one of the 3 kinds of right motivation sammā-sankappa the 2nd link of the Noble 8-fold path see: magga 2, its antonym being kāmasankappa lustful thought.
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Tue May 25, 2010 2:28 am

viriya

'energy', lit. 'virility', 'manliness' or 'heroism' from vīra man, hero; Lat. vir cf. virtus is one of the 5 spiritual abilities and powers, one of the 7 factors of enlightenment and identical with right effort of the 8-fold path.
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Wed May 26, 2010 3:51 am

Kāma-cchanda

'sense-desire' One of the five hindrances to meditation.
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Thu May 27, 2010 4:03 am

byapada

anger; one of the hindrances to meditation
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Fri May 28, 2010 1:31 am

thina-middha

sloth and torpor; one of the hindrances to meditation.
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Fri May 28, 2010 11:35 pm

uddhacca-kukkucca

agitation and worry; one of the five hindrances to meditation.
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Sat May 29, 2010 5:30 pm

Vicikicchā

'skeptical doubt', is one of the 5 mental hindrances nivarana, and one of the 3 mental chains samyojana, which disappear for ever at Stream-entry, the first stage of Nobility see: ariya-puggala As a fetter, it refers to sceptical doubt about the Master the Buddha, the Teaching, the Sangha, and the training; about things past and future, and conditionality Dhs 1004; cf. A. X, 71.

It also applies to uncertainty whether things are advantageous or not, to be practised or not, of high or low value, etc. According to Vis.M XIV, 177, vicikicchā is the lack of desire to think things out i.e. to come to a conclusion; vigata-cikicchā desiderative to Ö cit to think; it has the nature of wavering, and its manifestation is indecision and a divided attitude; its proximate cause is unwise attention to matters of doubt. It is associated with one of the 2 classes of disadvantageous consciousness rooted in confusion.
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