Pali word of the day

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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Tue Apr 06, 2010 12:05 am

SAMADHI

  ...concentration, contemplation on reality,
      the state of even-mindedness

  Sammà-samàdhi (Right Concentration) – It is the development
  of one-pointedness of the mind. It opens the gate to insight and
  understanding of the Four Noble Truths.
      A concentrated mind acts as a powerful aid to see things as
  they truly are. Thus one can realize the three characteristics of
  life, which are anicca (impermanence), dukkha (unsatisfactori-
  ness) and anattà (soullessness).
      The Buddha recommended 40 objects of meditation for the
  development of sammà-samàdhi. They include some of the
  essential methods such as mettà-bhàvanà (meditation on loving-
  kindness), kàyagatàsati (the reflection on the 32 impure parts of
  the body), ànàpànasati (mindfulness on breathing), maraõànu-
  sati (reflection on death), etc.
      Once a yogi achieves a certain level of concentration, he should
  develop insight meditation (vipassanà).
                                 (from A Pali Word a Day, BuddhaNet pdf)
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby christopher::: » Tue Apr 06, 2010 2:55 am

Wonderful thread idea, David..!

:anjali:
"As Buddhists, we should aim to develop relationships that are not predominated by grasping and clinging. Our relationships should be characterised by the brahmaviharas of metta (loving kindness), mudita (sympathetic joy), karuna (compassion), and upekkha (equanimity)."
~post by Ben, Jul 02, 2009
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Wed Apr 07, 2010 12:04 am

christopher::: wrote:Wonderful thread idea, David..!
:anjali:


:thanks: Christopher.
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Wed Apr 07, 2010 12:04 am

DOSA

  ...hatred, anger, ill will

  It comes with many names and faces, such as dislike, grudges,
  enmity, aversion, etc. It also appears in a subtle form as retaliation
  over a result, upset over the uncertainty in life, resentment... and
  in disguise; dosa is boredom, indecisiveness, frustration, envy,
  helplessness, ignorance, etc.
      Anger is harbored easily in the heart, especially over those
  words that are not suited to one’s ears/ego. Anger is prompted by
  a cause, be it a mosquito bite or a sight that disgusts. There are
  two causes:
  1. The repulsive/negative nature of the object. Things are
       changing all the time. They are not permanent. So are our
       thoughts, feelings and perceptions. If there is no dark, there
       is no bright.
  2. The unsystematic attention towards that repulsive nature. A
       fool views the bright side with greediness and the dark with
       anger, while the wise views the bright with loving-kindness
       and the dark with detachment.
     The manner of overcoming anger includes loving-kindness
  (mettà) in the heart, compassion (karuõà), a sense of equanim-
  ity (upekkhà) and right understanding of the Law of Kamma.
  And if all four have failed, avoid the situation.
                                   (from A Pali Word a Day, BuddhaNet pdf)
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Thu Apr 08, 2010 12:04 am

PUJA (pūjā)

    ...a gesture of worship or respect, usually that of
       raising the hands and palms together (añjali) :anjali:

    A Buddhist pays homage to the Buddha Råpa (image) represent-
    ing the Teacher Himself, the sàrãrika (relics) of the Holy One,
    which are normally housed in a stupa (pagoda) and the Bodhi
    tree which protected the Buddha during His striving for enlight-
    enment.
       Besides these three objects of veneration, Buddhists also pay
    respect to their Guru (teacher) and their elders (parents).
                                                      5-point reverence
                                         (both palms, elbows, knees, toes
                                              and forehead on the floor)
         2-point reverence
         (both knees and toes on
         the floor with an añjali
         gesture)
                                  (from A Pali Word a Day, BuddhaNet pdf)
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Thu Apr 08, 2010 11:36 pm

dukkha

  ...du (dif ficult) + kha (to endure) = suf fering,
     ill, incapable of satisfying, a state of dis-ease
     in the sense of discomfort, frustration and
     disharmony with the environment

  Birth (Jati) is suffering, so is aging or decay (Jarà), sickness
  (vyàdhi), death (maraõa), and disassociation from loved ones
  and not getting what one wants. In short, the five aggregates
  (khandas) of grasping are suffering.
     The influence of sensuality is so tempting that we believe in
  the “Self”. And the more we attach to that, the more suffering
  there will be.
     The attachment to sense objects and not knowing, or igno-
  rance, (avijjà) of their impermanence (anicca), underlies the
  cause of dukkha, which is manifested as craving (taõhà).
     The three types of Dukkha are:
  1. suffering of the mind and body in the ordinary sense, such
       pain, discomfort, etc.
  2. suffering of the aggregates due to the rising and falling away
       of the momentary phase of existence.
  3. Dukkha caused by changes, or transience.
                                (from A Pali Word a Day, BuddhaNet pdf)
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Fri Apr 09, 2010 11:37 pm

parami (paramita)

  ...to go beyond, perfection, excellent virtues,
     noblest qualities of the Bodhisattas
     (Buddhas-to-be)

  Dasa Pàramità (10 Perfections) – a line of conduct, or the pre-
  requisites for Enlightenment. The practice of these paramitas is
  enjoined with wisdom (pa¤¤à), compassion (karuõà) and self-
  lessness.
     The aspirants are required to perfect themselves through stren-
  uous development and cultivation in numerous cycles of birth and
  death.
     The 10 Perfections are:
  1. Dàna (Charity)
  2. Sãla (Morality)
  3. Nekkhamma (Renunciation)
  4. Paññà (Wisdom)
  5. Viriya (Energy)
  6. Khanti (Patience)
  7. Sacca (Truthfulness)
  8. Adhiññhàna (Determination)
  9. Mettà (Loving-kindness)
  10. Upekkhà (Equanimity)
                                (from A Pali Word a Day, BuddhaNet pdf)
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Sat Apr 10, 2010 11:48 pm

Ehipassiko

  ...“come and see”

  This is one of the virtues of the Buddha-dhamma. The Buddha
  invites us to come and see, to examine, to verify, test and to expe-
  rience the results of His teachings.
     The learning of the Buddha-dhamma demands no blind faith.
  There are no commandments or rules to penalize followers who
  do not want to believe in it.
     The only way for one to realize the Truth is to acquire the
  knowledge and practice by one’s own free will. Forcing someone
  to accept certain teachings which they are not ready to receive
  will not benefit them in their spiritual progress.
     The Buddha is not afraid to let His teachings be tested, for real-
  ization only comes from the practice of His teachings. The Buddha-
  dhamma is also Svàkkhàto(well taught), sandiññhiko(to be
  self-realized), akàliko(with immediate result), opanayiko(cap-
  able of being entered upon), paccattaü veditabbo vi¤¤åhãti (to
  be attained by the wise, each for himself).
                                 (from A Pali Word a Day, BuddhaNet pdf)
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Sun Apr 11, 2010 11:48 pm

Pañca-sīla

...Five Precepts – they form the basic
     Buddhist code of conduct with the
     objective of guarding the sense doors

  I undertake to observe the precept to abstain...
  1. ...from destroying living beings (pàõàtipàtà). With the culti-
      vation of loving kindness and compassion, this precept helps
      in controlling the passion of hate and anger in us.
  2. ...from taking what is not given (adinnàdànà). Avoiding
      stealing, robbing, swindling or even taking more than what is
      given, we exercise self control over the desire to possess
      things belonging to others. In other words, one is practising
      generosity and sincerity, and is developing trustworthiness.
  3. ...from sexual misconduct (kàmesu-micchàcàrà). By curb-
      ing our lust for excessive sensual pleasures such as adultery,
      we show respect for the safety and integrity of others and
      cultivate contentment.
  4. ...from false speech (musàvàdà). Lying or deceiving (by
      telling less than one should) are the negative values of hon-
      esty. One should avoid using cheating, exaggeration and slan-
      der to gain wealth, fame and power.
  5. ...from drugs and liquor (surà). This way is not one of
      escapism from reality. One should be mindful at all times and
      be self-controlled.
                                (from A Pali Word a Day, BuddhaNet pdf)
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Tue Apr 13, 2010 12:48 am

Jataka

'about birth'
  ...accounts of previous births (of the Buddha)

  A work of the Theràvada (Doctrines of the Elders) Canon, it con-
  tains a collection of 547 stories of previous existences of Buddha
  Gotama.
     Of great value in folklore and Buddhist mythology as the back-
  ground of moral tales. Each Jàtaka has its own moral story as it
  shows how the Bodhisatta practised and developed the virtues
  required for the attainment of Buddhahood.
     The Jàtaka Tales are accounts of the Buddha’s previous lives,
  originally told by the Buddha to His disciples. In His previous lives
  the Buddha appeared in many forms, such as animals, human
  beings, nagas (dragons) and devas (heavenly beings).
     The Jàtakas emphasize the selflessness of compassion, love and
  kindness and the beauty of virtuous action.
     The Jàtakas teach us that we are fully responsible for our
  actions, and that what we think and do affects the quality of our
  lives. This basic principle is known as Kamma.
                                  (from A Pali Word a Day, BuddhaNet pdf)
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Wed Apr 14, 2010 12:39 am

Mudita

  ...sympathetic joy, altruistic joy, appreciative joy
      – it is the congratulatory attitude of a person

  Its chief characteristic is happy acquiescence in others’ prosperity
  and success. It is one of the four Sublime Abodes of Conduct
  (Brahma Vihàras). The other three are Mettà, Karuõà and
  Upekkhà.
     By rejoicing in the skillful action and merits of others, one
  tends to eradicate the jealousy (issà) which would lead to un-
  wholesome deeds through action, speech and thoughts. The prac-
  tice of mudità demands great personal effort and strong will
  power.
     The development of mudità requires systematic evaluation,
  Right Understanding and moderation. Hence, one should always
  be mindful of its near enemy, which is laughter, merriment,
  excitableness and exhilaration, while its far enemy is jealousy and
  envy.
     Mudità is like a mother’s joy over the success and youthfulness
  of her child. A Buddhist practising mudità will happily say,
  “Sàdhu! Sàdhu! Sàdhu!” which means well done or excellent, to
  rejoice in the merits of others.
                                  (from A Pali Word a Day, BuddhaNet pdf)
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Thu Apr 15, 2010 12:51 am

kamma

  ...actions performed with intention
     or conscious motive

  The Law of Kamma – the law of cause and effect, action and the
  appropriate result of action.
     All our actions fit into three classifications: namely thought
  (mental action), speech (verbal action) and body (physical
  action). Therefore, in order for these actions to become kamma,
  they must be associated with cetanà (volition) or intention. Thus
  kamma can be kusala (wholesome) or akusala (unwholesome).
     Kamma is not a doctrine of pre-determination. The past influ-
  ences the present but does not dominate it. The past and present
  influence the future.
     The result of Kamma is called Vipàka (consequence) or Phala
  (fruition). And this leads to another better-known fundamental
  teachings of the Buddha – the doctrine of Rebirth.
     Kamma is the chief cause of all the inequalities in the world,
  yet not everything is due to these past actions. The simple expla-
  nation of how Kamma works is: good begets good; bad begets
  bad; good and bad begets good and bad; neither good nor bad
  begets neither good nor bad.
                                (from A Pali Word a Day, BuddhaNet pdf)
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Fri Apr 16, 2010 1:04 am

mitta

  ...friend, companion
  Kalyāna Mitta – Spiritual friends and friendship.

     The purpose of friendship is to grow mutually, to improve spir-
  ituality in faith (saddhà), generosity (càga), virtue (sãla), know-
  ledge and wisdom (paññà).
     It is the forerunner of goodness in life such as happiness,
  wealth, opportunity, etc. It is the supporting condition for the
  growth of all goodness.
     A real friend is a friend who helps when in need, who shares
  the same weal and woes with you, who gives good counsel and
  who sympathizes.
     An enemy disguised as a friend is one who associates for gain
  (a taker), who render lips services (a talker), who flatters (a flat-
  terer) and who brings ruin to your wealth (a spender).
     The qualities of a good friend are, one who...
  1. gives what is hard to give (dàna)
  2. does what is hard to do
  3. hears what is hard to hear or bear
  4. confesses (shares) his, or her, own secret with you
  5. keeps others’ secrets
  6. in need, forsakes one not
  7. despises one not when one is ruined.
                                 (from A Pali Word a Day, BuddhaNet pdf)
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Fri Apr 16, 2010 9:37 pm

karuna

  ...compassion, harmless, willing to bear
     the pain of others

  Karunà should be practiced with wisdom (paññà). It is a thought
  of peace and harmlessness meant to reduce the pain of other fel-
  low beings that are not so fortunate compared to oneself.
     At the height of this practice, one might even go to the extent
  of sacrificing one’s own life to alleviate the suffering of others. It
  has the characteristic of a loving mother whose thoughts, words
  and deeds always tend to release the distress of her sick child.
     The purpose of Karunà is to help eliminate the element of cruel-
  ty. The cultivation of Karunà is not just talking – action counts
  also. Compassion is the motivating factor for the making of a
  Bodhisatta Vow.
     One must be able to identify the feelings of emotional upset
  caused by the suffering of others as being pity or grief, and not
  karuõà. Karunà, like the other three virtues in the Brahma
  Vihàras, is a positive mental quality.
                                 (from A Pali Word a Day, BuddhaNet pdf)
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Sun Apr 18, 2010 2:04 am

METTĀ

...loving-kindness, divine love,
active good will

It is also a warm and friendly feeling of good will and concern for
the well being and happiness of one self and others. It is a prac-
tice of positive mental qualities to overcome anger (dosa), ill will,
hatred and aversion.
Just as a mother will protect her only child, even at the risk of
her life, even so one should cultivate boundless love towards all
living beings.
Metta should be radiated in equal measure towards oneself,
and to friends, enemies and neutral persons, regardless of their
strength and size, whether they are seen or unseen, whether they
dwell far away or near.
The culmination of this metta is the identification of oneself
with all beings, making no difference between oneself and others
thus the so-called “I” does not exist.
Metta is neither passionate love (pema) nor desire to possess
(want). It is above the normal human love of caring, trust and
respect. It is universal and limitless in its scope.
Metta possesses a magnetic power that can produce a good
influence on others even at a distance.
(from A Pali Word a Day, BuddhaNet pdf)
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Sun Apr 18, 2010 2:19 am

And to complete the 4 Brahma Viharas (since this one is not in the Pali Word a Day booklet):

Upekkha

Equanimity

It is the quality of being emotionally calm, balanced and even, especially when confronted with difficult situations. Sometimes it is also called equipoise (susamàhita) or being centred (majjhatta). Equanimity is the last of the four Brahma Viharas, one of the different ways love can express itself. It is also mentioned as one of the ten paramitas.

It can be difficult, impossible even, to feel warm friendly regard to someone who has hurt us or who is unapologetically evil. The way we can express love to such a person is by remaining calm, unmoved and free from hatred. From this stance it will be much easier to open up to that person when we have developed our love more strongly. Equanimity is also a skilful way to respond to the many temptations, provocations and sensual impressions that assail us every day. It will allow us to keep our sense of balance and, as the Buddha said, ‘walk evenly over the uneven’ (S.I,4).

Sometimes equanimity is confused with indifference although it is actually easy to distinguish the two. If we remain calm and unmoved because we understand that excitement or agitation is inappropriate, unjustified or unhelpful, this can be called equanimity. If we remain unmoved and uninvolved because we cannot be bothered or because we simply do not care this can be called indifference. Equanimity grows out of knowledge, indifference out of ignorance or selfishness.
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Mon Apr 19, 2010 12:39 am

KATHINA
  .
  ...hard, firm, unshakeable, Robe and the
  Robe Of fering Ceremony (according to the
  Vinaya commentary)
  Every year the Buddhist monks will observe their Vassa (rainy
  season retreat) for about three months. During this retreat, the
  monks go into intensive meditation practice.
     At the end of the vassa, they are allowed to receive a new robe,
  or a piece of cloth for making a robe, from lay devotees. The
  Kañhina Robe is made of several pieces of cloth sewn together in
  the pattern of paddy fields and looks like a rag robe.
  The Kañhina ceremony has to be celebrated within a month after
  the vassa in the Sima Hall in the Monastery or Temple where
  they dwelt during the vassa. There will be only one Kañhina Robe
  offered to the monk who spent the retreat according to the rules
  (selected by the community of monks in that Temple).
  The offering of the Kañhina Robe is considered a very meritorious
  deed, because the merit accrued is as “hard” (Kañhina) as a dia-
  mond. The donors may go anywhere without fear, eat anything
  without danger, their belongings are safe from flood, fire and
  thieves, and they are liable to receive many clothes and own many
  possessions.
                                  (from A Pali Word a Day, BuddhaNet pdf)
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Tue Apr 20, 2010 12:50 am

Loka

  ...world, realms
  There are 31 states of existence into which beings are born,
  according to their kamma.

     Basically they are divided into 3 groups of bhava (becoming,
  or state of existence)
  1. Kàmabhava (sensual world, plane of desire)
       a) The 4 Apàya-bhåmi (plane of misery) or lower world:
            Niraya (hells), Tiracchàna-yoni (animal realm), Peta-
            yoni (hungry ghosts realm) and Asura-yoni (demon
            world).
       b) 7 Kàmasugati-bhåmi (happy states): Manussa (human
            realm); Càtummahàràjika, Tàvatiriüsa, Yàma, Tusita,
            Nimmànarati, Paranimmitavasavatti heavens (deva
            realms)
  2. Råpabhava (plan of form) or Brahmaloka
       Consist of 16 categories of distinction depending on the stage
       and intensity of the four stages of jhàna (a state of serene
       contemplation).
  3. Aråpabhava (formless plane)
       In the 4 highest realms there is only mind and no physical
       form.
                                 (from A Pali Word a Day, BuddhaNet pdf)
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Wed Apr 21, 2010 1:09 am

akusala

Unwholesome, disadvantageous, are all those kammic intentions kamma-cetanā and all consciousness and mental properties associated therewith, which are accompanied either by greed lobha, hate dosa or confusion moha or derivatives thereof. All these mental states are causing disadvantageous kamma-results and contain the initiating seeds of unhappy & painful future, destiny and rebirth.
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Wed Apr 21, 2010 1:10 am

kusala

  ...wholesome, meritorious, righteous, a
     term used to describe acts whose kammic
     ef fect will assist the progress in mind-
     development, or to produce pleasant results

  A wholesome deed is an act:
  1. which does not harm either the doer or others
  2. which is praised and approved by the wise, and
  3. which when performed conduces to the benefit and
      happiness of both oneself and others
  Dasa Kusala Kamma (10 meritorious deeds)
  1. Danà (generosity)
  2. Sãla (virtue)
  3. Bhàvanã (mental culture-meditation)
  4. Apacayana (reverence, act of respect)
  5. Veyyàvacca (service, rendering help)
  6. Pattidàna (transference of merit)
  7. Pattànumodanà (rejoicing in others’ merit)
  8. Dhammasavaïa (listening to the doctrine)
  9. Dhammadesanà (teaching the doctrine,)
  10. Diññhijukamma (straightening one’s views) forming correct
      views, establishing right understanding
  Akusala (unwholesome) Kamma includes killing, stealing. un-
  chasteness, lying, slandering, harsh speech, frivolous talk, cov-
  etousness, ill will and false view.
                                  (from A Pali Word a Day, BuddhaNet pdf)
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