Pali Term: Ekaggatā

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Pali Term: Ekaggatā

Postby Dmytro » Mon Sep 06, 2010 2:39 pm

Hello Pali friends,

The term 'ekaggatā' is defined in the following way:

"Tattha cittassa ekaggatāti nānārammaṇavikkhepābhāvato ekaṃ ārammaṇaṃ aggaṃ uttamaṃ assāti ekaggo, ekaggassa bhāvo ekaggatā."

Patisambhidamagga-Atthakatha 1.230

"Here the 'ekaggatā' of the mind is the state (bhāvo) when one thing is predominant (ekaggo). One thing is predominant when there's no perplexity (vikkhepa) on multiple bases and one basis (ārammaṇa) is predominant (agga) and preeminent (uttama)."

In practical terms, this means that the perceptual image (nimitta) of the meditation object colours all perception, - as, for example, in the practice of earth kasina:

Cattāri ārammaṇāni

181. Katame dhammā kusalā? Yasmiṃ samaye rūpūpapattiyā maggaṃ bhāveti vivicceva kāmehi…pe… paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati parittaṃ parittārammaṇaṃ pathavīkasiṇaṃ, tasmiṃ samaye phasso hoti…pe… avikkhepo hoti…pe… ime dhammā kusalā.

182. Katame dhammā kusalā? Yasmiṃ samaye rūpūpapattiyā maggaṃ bhāveti vivicceva kāmehi…pe… paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati parittaṃ appamāṇārammaṇaṃ pathavīkasiṇaṃ – tasmiṃ samaye phasso hoti…pe… avikkhepo hoti…pe… ime dhammā kusalā.

183. Katame dhammā kusalā? Yasmiṃ samaye rūpūpapattiyā maggaṃ bhāveti vivicceva kāmehi…pe… paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati appamāṇaṃ parittārammaṇaṃ pathavīkasiṇaṃ, tasmiṃ samaye phasso hoti…pe… avikkhepo hoti…pe… ime dhammā kusalā.

184. Katame dhammā kusalā? Yasmiṃ samaye rūpūpapattiyā maggaṃ bhāveti vivicceva kāmehi…pe… paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati appamāṇaṃ appamāṇārammaṇaṃ pathavīkasiṇaṃ, tasmiṃ samaye phasso hoti…pe… avikkhepo hoti…pe… ime dhammā kusalā.

Dhammasangani 37

Metta, Dmytro
Last edited by Dmytro on Mon Aug 06, 2012 3:51 am, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Pali Term: Ekaggattā

Postby Alexei » Fri Feb 25, 2011 9:07 pm

Although singleness of mind isn’t mentioned in the standard formula of the first jhāna, likely because it isn’t as prominent here as in the second jhāna, nevertheless, MN 43 lists it as one of the five jhāna factors. Moreover, MN 44 Culavedalla Sutta, defines concentration (samādhi) as singleness of mind:

    Singleness of mind (cittassa ekaggatā) is concentration, friend Visakha; the four applications of mindfulness are its causes (nimitta); the four right exertions are its requisites; and any cultivation, development, and pursuit of these qualities is its development.
It’s also worth noting that the nimittas of concentration are given as the four applications of mindfulness.

Similarly, the faculty of concentration (samādhindriya) is defined as the attainment of singleness of mind by a noble disciple (ariyasāvaka) who has attained the path. SN 48.10 Indriyavibhaṅga Sutta:

    And what is the faculty of concentration? Here monks, a noble disciple, making letting go his object, gains concentration, gains singleness of mind. Quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unskillful phenomena, he enters and remains in the first jhāna....
And this definition of the faculty of concentration naturally includes jhāna as the eighth component of the noble eightfold path.

viewtopic.php?p=89678#p89678


Singleness of mind is possible in any state which has discarded the five hindrances and therefore has nothing to do with being "sharply focused on a minute area of existence." For example, AN 4.12 Sīla Sutta:

    If while he is walking, standing, sitting, or reclining, a monk is free from greed and ill will, from sloth and torpor, from restlessness and worry, and has discarded doubt, then his will has become strong and impregnable; his mindfulness is alert and unclouded; his body is calm and unexcited; his mind is concentrated and collected (samāhitaṃ cittaṃ ekaggaṃ).

And also, differing from Ven. Brahmavamso's jhāna, the canon describes the mind in jhāna as vast and expansive. MN 127 describes the expansive liberation of mind (mahaggatā cetovimutti), which is a synonym for the mastery of jhāna, as follows:

    And what, householder, is the expansive liberation of mind? Here a monk abides resolved upon an area the size of the root of one tree, pervading it as expansive: this is called the expansive liberation of mind. Here a monk abides resolved upon an area the size of the roots of two or three trees, pervading it as expansive: this too is called the expansive liberation of mind. Here a monk abides resolved upon an area the size of one village, pervading it as expansive ... an area the size of two or three villages... an area the size of one major kingdom... an area the size of two or three major kingdoms... an area the size of the earth bounded by the ocean, pervading it as expansive: this too is called the expansive liberation of mind.

viewtopic.php?p=116708#p116708


I don't attend to any single physical object - this would narrow the mind, while the Satipatthana sutta advocates the development of the spacious mind (mahaggatta citta). It's essential here to understand that the focus of the jhana is not a single object, but a certain quality - liquid (water), solid body (earth), plasma (fire), gas (air, as in Anapanasati), or primary colors. In technical terms, concentration need a basis (arammana). And ekaggatta (mistranslated as one-pointedness) is the prevalence of one arammana in the mind, as described in the thread: viewtopic.php?f=23&t=5550

Somehow there evolved a simplistic notion of concentration as just keeping attention endlessly on one point until one gets in some trance state. This leads nowhere. On the contrary, samadhi requires a precise basis, which can be made predominant in the mind to the extent of totality (kasina).

    "There are these ten totality-dimensions. Which ten? One perceives the earth-totality above, below, all-around: non-dual, unlimited. One perceives the water-totality... the fire-totality... the wind-totality... the blue-totality... the yellow-totality... the red-totality... the white-totality... the space-totality... the consciousness-totality above, below, all-around: non-dual, unlimited."
    http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka ... .than.html

viewtopic.php?p=90494#p90494
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Re: Pali Term: Ekaggatā

Postby frank k » Sat Mar 16, 2013 7:18 pm

CPED defines ekodibhaava as one pointedness. I'm interested in the 2nd jhaana formula.
vitakkavicārānaṃ vūpasamā ajjhattaṃ sampasādanaṃ cetaso ekodibhāvaṃ avitakkaṃ avicāraṃ samādhijaṃ pītisukhaṃ

so my questions are:
how closely related is ekodibhaava to ekaggata? are they equivalent as jhana factors? I interpret the 2nd jhaana to say that vitakka and vicaara are replaced by ekodibhaava (ekaggata equivalent?).

how can those two words be broken down further?
eko-di-bhaava? cultivation of oneness?
eka-g-gata? going to oneness?
http://www.audtip.org Audio Sutta Recordings
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Re: Pali Term: Ekaggatā

Postby Dmytro » Sun Mar 17, 2013 7:47 am

Hi Frank,

frank k wrote:CPED defines ekodibhaava as one pointedness.


Well, CPED is sometimes quite inaccurate.

CPD doesn't repeat this old error and says a lot of interesting things:

ekodi, m. and mfn. [eka + *ūti "web " or "effort"; BHS ekot[ī/i]; v. ūdi (for t > d cf. Geiger PLL § 38.3)], 1. (m.) concentration (of mind), "singleness (of mind)" (*‘m, Paṭis-Trsl.); a calm, concentrated state of mind associated with jhāna = samādhi or ekagga(tā); for earlier interpretations cf. Morris, JPTS 1885, pp. 32 foll., Levi, JAs 1916, p. 502, Renou, JAs 1939, p. 393 n. 1; the proposed derivation < ekodhi is perhaps supported by the v.l. ekodhi, q. v.;
* Rem.: the trsl.s "predominance" and "aloofness" are supported by the etym. in the ct.s (eka = seṭṭha, asahāya; udi [q. v.] < udeti, udāyati [see 1. below]) and in Sadd 315,21 (īdi udi ~i paṇḍito), but they do not fit the earliest canonical usage; they were probably influenced by the etym. of the syn. ekagga(tā), which later replaced ~ ; 2. (mfn.) (a) unified, single, concentrated; (b) aloof, (mentally) secluded; (c) predominant, pre-eminent;
* 1. (m.) athavā sampayuttadhamme udāyatī (As: udayatī) ti udi (v. l. udi; As om.), uṭṭhapetī ti attho; seṭṭhaṭṭhena eko ca so udi cā ti (As Ee w.r. udiccā), samādhiss' etam adhivacanaṁ, iti imam ~iṁ bhāveti vaḍḍhetī ti idaṁ dutiyajjhānaṁ °-bhāvaṁ, Vism 156,24-27 = As 169,26-29; so panâyaṁ ~i yasmā cetaso, na sattassa, na jīvassa, tasmā etaṁ cetaso °-bhāvan ti vuttaṁ, As 169,29-31 = Vism 156,28-29 = Moh 174,5-6; °-bhūto ti eko seṭṭho (Ee w.r.) asahāyo va hutvā udetī ti ~i, It-a I 175,16; °-bhāvan ti ettha vitakka-vicārehi anajjhārūḷhattā eko aggo seṭṭho udetī ti ~i, samādhi, Moh 174,4;
* 2. (mfn.) (a) in connection with jhāna: te jhānāni upasampajja ~i (pl.) nipakā (Ee prints as one word) satā, S I 52,6* (ekaggacittā c' eva paññā-nepakkena ca samannāgatā, Spk I 109,20) ≠ A III 354,22* (Mp III 378,2) ≠ Sn 962 (Pj II 572,20); ~ī ti ekaggacitto avikkhittacitto avisāhaṭamānaso (Mss. Bp S and Be add [inappropriately] samatho samādhindriyaṁ samādhibalaṁ ... pe ... sammāsamādhi) ti ~i, Nidd I 478,13-14 (ad Sn 962); ~ī ti adhicittasikkhaṁ pucchati, 478,20;
* cittaṁ ~iṁ karohi, S II 273,27 (~iṁ karohī ti ekaggaṁ karohi, Spk II 233,23);
* 2.(b) meaning differs only in Sv: jhānena ~i nipako sato, D II 267,5* (~ī ti ekībhāvaṁ gato, Sv 703,12);
* 2.(c) v. s. v. ekodibhāva;
* °-karoti, pr. 3 sg., to make single (of the mind), to concentrate (= samādahati); sometimes printed as two words;
* forms: pres. 1 sg. ~omi, 3 sg. ~oti; imper. 2 sg. ~ohi; ger. ~-kātabbaṁ;
* cittaṁ saṇṭhapemi sannisādemi ~omi samādahāmi, M I 116,15 (ekodiṁ karomī ti ekaggaṁ karomi, Ps II 83,12); cittaṁ ~omi, 249,30; cittaṁ ~oti, III 111,21; Peṭ 41,9; pathame jhāne cittaṁ ~ohi (v.l. ~iṁ karohi), S IV 263,21; 264,14; ... samādhinimittt[sic ->OHP]e ... cittaṁ ... ~-kātabbaṁ, M III 112,17; cittaṁ ~-kātabbaṁ, A II 94,22 (Mp III 116,22 prints as two words);
* Rem.: with karoti (both active and passive) ~ may be a separate word, a neuter nom. or acc. agreeing with cittaṁ, nom. or acc.; with bhāvita ~ is certainly a cpd., and so it is probably a cpd. with hoti and bhūta, although the construction would allow the possibility of two separate words; we nowhere find in Pāli the -ī- form which we should expect in a cpd.; BHS has both -i- and -ī-; the later ct.s perhaps regarded ~ as a noun;
* °(i)-aṭṭha, m. [ekodi + aṭṭha], "singleness as a meaning" (Ñm); ekatte ~o abhiññeyyo, Paṭis I 18,2; ~aṁ bujjhantī ti bojjhaṅgā, II 120,23; samādhissa ~o, Paṭis-a 98,12;
* °-nāmaka, mfn., called "e."; ayañ ca ~o samādhi, Vism 156,30 = As 169,33 = Moh 174,7;
* °-bhāva, m. [BHS ekotībhāva], 1. singleness, unity (of mind), concentration; 2. solitude; 3. pre-eminence;
* 1. in set phrase with ref to second jhāna: ... ajjhattaṁ sampasādanaṁ cetaso ~aṁ, Vin III 4,10 (Sp 147,32-148,4) = D I 37,13 (Franke, D-Trsl. p. 39 n. 6 "Erhebung und Zusammenschluss des Geistes" is based upon a wrong etym.) = III 78,8 = 131,24 = 222,8 = M I 21,37 = 117,10 = III 14,26 = S II 273,15-31 (Spk II 233,23, v. supra s.v. ekodi-karohi) = III 236,14 = IV 264,2-17 = A II 127,2 = IV 66,25 = 112,4 = Nidd I 39,24 (Nidd-a I 135,3-20) qu. Paṭis-a 75,31; Dhs 161 (As 169,21-170,30; "supremely exalted", As-Trsl.) = Vibh 245,8 ("exalted development of mind" Vibh-Trsl.);
* Rem.: both tr sis are based on meaning 3., found only in ct.s; v. infra and Rem. s.v. ekodi;
* in expl. of sammāsamādhi: Vibh 105,31 = Paṭis I 41,38 (Paṭis-a 184,31-185,4); cetaso ~an ti: yā cittassa ṭhiti ... (= Dhs 24, which is expl. of sammāsamādhi) ... , Vibh 258,10 (ad Vibh 245,8);
* in expl. of adhicittasikkhā: Nidd I 39,24 (Nidd-a I 135,3-20):
* tesaṁ (i. e. vitakka-vicārānaṁ) vūpasamā ~aṁ cittekaggataṁ hoti, tassa ~ena pīti pāripūriṁ gacchati, Peṭ 143,17-18 ("singleness", *‘m Peṭ-Trsl. § 586); a jhānaṅga in second and fourth jhānas: Peṭ 147,3,5; 184,14,17; but cf. ekaggatā at Abhidh-s 33,8;
* expl. in ct.s: ~an ti ... eko aggo seṭṭho udetī ti ekodi, samādhi; taṁ bhāveti vaḍḍheti ti dutiyajjhānaṁ ~aṁ, Moh 174,3-4 (based on expl. in Sp 147,32-148,4 = Nidd-a I 135,3-20 = Paṭis-a 184,31-185,12 = Vism 156,20-157,9 (quoting Vibh 258,10) = As 169,21-170,27 (v. s.v. udi);
* 2. alternative rendering suggested in ct.s; Ja V 256,5' (= ekavihārikaṁ);
* 3. a late etym.: cetaso ~an (D I 37,13) ti ādisu seṭṭhe (Be so; Ee w.r. saṁsaṭṭhe), Ud-a 18,25 ≠ It-a I 37,16; see also expl. in ct. s given in 1.;
* °-bhāvagata; Th-a III 73,4 (ad Th 916 "°-bhāvita", q. v.);
* °-bhāvâdhigata, mfn., 1. having attained singleness (of mind);
* 2. having attained (mental) aloofness;
* 1. the fourth item in the list of pañcañānika sammā-samādhi: D III 279,3 (ekodibhāvena adhigatattā ekodibhāvaṁ eva vā adhigatattā ~o, Sv 1060,10-11) = A III 24,19 (Mp III 231,28-29) = Vibh 334,15 (Vibh-a 421,11-13) = Nett 89,4 (pañcavidhā samādhi, Nett-a Be 1960 151,25);
* ekodibhāva explained as ekaggabhāva: A I 254,30 (Mp II 363,3) = III 425,14; 426,8 (Mp III 411,5);
* 2. ekodibhāva explained as ekavihārika: Ja V 255,6* (256,5'; EeSe so; Tr. conjectures ekavihāritaṁ);
* °-bhāvita, mfn. (pp. of caus. of ekodihoti, q. v.), = prec.; Th 916 (~e ti ekodibhāvagate suciṇṇe vasī-bhāvapatte, Th-a in 73,3);
* °-bhūta, mfn. (pp. of ekodihoti, q. v.), 1. become single(-minded), concentrated; = ekaggabhūta, -samādhīhi samāhita;
* 2. become aloof, secluded; =ekībhūta;
* 3. become pre-eminent;
* 1. ātāpino sampajānā ~ā vippasannacittā samāhitā ekaggacittā, S V 144,21-145,13 (khanikasamādhinā ekaggabhūtā samāhitā, Spk III 200,4); Sn "975 qu. Nidd I 507,3; expl. 509,6-7 (ekaggacitto, Pj II 574,25 = Nidd-a I 469,8-9); °-samādhissa padaṭṭhānaṁ, Peṭ 173,12;
* 2. ~o ti ekībhūto eko tiṭṭhanto eko nisīdanto ti vacan'-attho pan' ettha eko udeti pavattatī ti ekodi, tādiso bhūto ti ~o, Sv 665,6-8 (ad D II 241,13* "ekodibhūto"); ~o ti eko udeti pavattatī ti ~o ekībhūto, ekena kāyavivekaṁ dasseti; athavā eko udetī ti ekodi samādhi, tam bhūto patto ti ~o, upacārappaṇāsamādhīhi samāhito ti attho, Cp-a 49,26-29 (ad Cp-a 48,30* = D II 241,13*);
* 3. late etym.: eko seṭṭho hutvā udetī ti ekodi samādhi; so ekodi bhūto jāto uppanno etassa ~o ... ekodiṁ vā bhūto patto ti ~o; ettha ca ekodi ti maggasamādhi-adhippeto, It-a I 175,5-8 (ad It 42,4*);
* °-hoti, pr. 3 sg., to become single(-minded), concentrated; cittaṁ ... ~oti samādhiyati, S IV 196,24 (tatiyajjhānavasena ~oti [Ee two words] catuttha-jjhānavasena samādhiyati, Spk III 66,12) ≠ A I 254,32 (ekaggaṁ hoti, Mp H 363,17) = JJ. 157,22 (Mp III 144,4) = Paṭis H 93,5 (Paṭis-a 586,3) = 101,7.

http://pali.hum.ku.dk/cpd/search.html

I'm interested in the 2nd jhaana formula.
vitakkavicārānaṃ vūpasamā ajjhattaṃ sampasādanaṃ cetaso ekodibhāvaṃ avitakkaṃ avicāraṃ samādhijaṃ pītisukhaṃ

so my questions are:
how closely related is ekodibhaava to ekaggata? are they equivalent as jhana factors?


Yes.

how can those two words be broken down further?
eko-di-bhaava? cultivation of oneness?
eka-g-gata? going to oneness?


Eka-aggatā means predominance (aggatā) of one thing (i.e. ārammaṇa, basis of concentration).
And when one basis is predominant, it colors the whole mind, so the mind becomes synchronized and defragmented in the "state of singleness" (ekodi-bhāva).


Ṭhitena cetasāti cittassa ṭhitiparidīpanena samādhisampadaṃ dasseti. Samādhi hi cittassa ‘ṭhitī’ti vuccati. Tasmā samathavasena vipassanāvaseneva vā ekaggatāya sati cittaṃ ārammaṇe ekodibhāvūpagamanena ṭhitaṃ nāma hoti, na aññathā.

Udana-Atthakatha 320

Na ekaggabhāvappatto na ekaggataṃ patto. Ekaṃ udetīti hi ekodi, paṭipakkhehi anabhibhūtattā aggaṃ seṭṭhaṃ hutvā udetīti attho. Seṭṭhopi hi loke ekoti vuccati, ekasmiṃ ārammaṇe samādhānavasena pavattacittassetaṃ adhivacanaṃ. Ekodissa bhāvo ekodibhāvo, ekaggatāyetaṃ adhivacanaṃ.

Duka-tika-catukkanipata-tika Mya: 2.198

In practice, the mind is unified on the basis of representation of samadhi (samadhi-nimitta):

Mahāsuññatasutta

‘‘Tenānanda, bhikkhunā tasmiṃyeva purimasmiṃ samādhinimitte ajjhattameva cittaṃ saṇṭhapetabbaṃ sannisādetabbaṃ ekodi kātabbaṃ samādahātabbaṃ.

"When that is the case, Ananda, he should get the mind steadied right within, settled, unified, & concentrated on his first representation of concentration.

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka ... .than.html

I interpret the 2nd jhaana to say that vitakka and vicaara are replaced by ekodibhaava (ekaggata equivalent?).


I would say that thanks to appeasement of vitakka and vicaara mind becomes unified.
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Re: Pali Term: Ekaggatā

Postby Dmytro » Sun Mar 17, 2013 11:24 am

I have looked up a CPD article on ekaggatā and found another useful gloss:

ekaggatā ti cittassa ekālambanasaṇṭhiti

Saddhammöpāyana 460

which accords well with the above mentioned gloss from Patisambhidamagga-Atthakatha about the predominance of one ārammaṇa (Sanskrit ālambana).
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Re: Pali Term: Ekaggatā

Postby SDC » Mon Mar 18, 2013 12:34 am

frank k wrote:eka-g-gata? going to oneness?


From Ven. Punnaji...

Vicikicchā - The mind going in two different directions. A balancing act of two extremes. Oscillation of the mind between reason and emotion.
Ekaggatā - The mind going in one direction. The one-ended mind.
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Re: Pali Term: Ekaggatā

Postby frank k » Tue Mar 19, 2013 1:51 am

thanks for the info Dmytro and SDC!
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Re: Pali Term: Ekaggatā

Postby Kumara » Thu Aug 01, 2013 4:08 am

I'm thinking: If ekaggata is rightly analyzed as "eka-g-gata", how are we to analyze ekagga?
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Re: Pali Term: Ekaggatā

Postby Kumara » Mon Sep 08, 2014 7:28 am

From viewtopic.php?p=90494#p90494
Dmytro wrote:... ekaggatta (mistranslated as one-pointedness)...

Somehow there evolved a simplistic notion of concentration as just keeping attention endlessly on one point until one gets in some trance state. This leads nowhere.

I'd like to find out: How did this "one-pointedness" translation start?

The earliest I know now is A. P. Buddhadatta Mahāthera’s Concise Pāli-English Dictionary, which provides “onepointedness” besides “tranquillity of mind”. I don’t suppose he meant that ekaggatā had two meanings, but that by “onepointedness” he meant “tranquillity of mind”.

Anyway, was he the first person who created “onepointedness”, or did he picked it up from someone else? I've a hunch it's the later.

UPDATE: I've just found "one-pointedness" in an earlier source: PTS PED—under citta:
--ekaggatā "one--pointedness of mind," concentration.

No “onepointedness” under eka though, where I looked earlier. Here, the dictionary provides a very muddled idea of ekaggatā: “concentration; capacity to individualise; contemplation, tranquillity of mind”. It’s more focused with ekagga though: “calm, tranquil, collected”. It's as if the compilers were undecided about it.
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Re: Pali Term: Ekaggatā

Postby Kumara » Sat Sep 13, 2014 2:54 am

For a more complete thread, let me add viewtopic.php?f=23&t=10150&start=40#p229779 which shows my take on the term.
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