paramí = páramitá: 'perfection'. Ten qualities leading to Buddhahood: (1) perfection in giving (or liberality; dána-páramí), (2) morality (síla-p.), (3) renunciation (nekkhamma-p.), (4) wisdom (paññá-p.), (5) energy (viriya-p.), (6) patience (or forbearance; khanti p.), (7) truthfulness (sacca-p.), (8) resolution (adhitthána-p.), (9) loving-kindness (mettá-p.) (10) equanimity (upekkhá-p.).
These qualities were developed and brought to maturity by the Bodhisatta in his past existences, and his way of practising them is illustrated in many of the Birth Stories (Játaka), of which, however, only the verses are regarded as canonical. Apart from the latter, the 10 páramí are mentioned in only two other canonical works which are probably apocryphal, the Buddhavamsa (in the Story of Sumedha) and the Cariyapitaka. A long and methodical exposition of the páramí is given in the concluding Miscellaneous Section (pakinnakakathá) of the Com. to Cariyapitaka
In Vis.M. IX it is said that through developing the 4 sublime states (loving-kindness, compassion, altruistic joy, equanimity; s. brahma-vihára), one may reach these 10 perfections, namely:
"As the Great Beings (mahá-satta; a synonym often found in the Maháyana scriptures for Bodhisatta (q.v.), i.e. 'Enlightenment Being or Being destined for Buddhahood) are concerned about the welfare of living beings, not tolerating the suffering of beings, wishing long duration to the higher states of happiness of beings, and being impartial and just to all beings, therefore (1) they give alms (dána, q.v.) to all beings so that they may be happy, without Investigating whether they are worthy or not. (2) By avoiding to do them any harm, they observe morality (síla q.v.). (3) In order to bring morality to perfection, they train themselves in renunciation (nekkhamma). (4) In order to understand clearly what is beneficial and injurious to beings, they purify their wisdom (paññá). (5) For the sake of the welfare and happiness of others they constantly exert their energy (viriya). (6) Though having become heroes through utmost energy, they are nevertheless full of forbearance (khanti) toward s the manifold failings of beings . (7) Once they have promised to give or do something, they do not break their promise ('truthfulness'; sacca). (8) With unshakable resolution (adhitthána) they work for the weal and welfare of beings. (9) With unshakable kindness (mettá) they are helpful to all. (10) By reason of their equanimity (upekkhá) they do not expect anything in return" (Vis.M. IX. 24).
In the Maháyana scriptures, where the páramí occupy a much more prominent place, a partly differing list of six is given: liberality, morality, patience, energy, meditation. and wisdom.
Literature: Ten Jataka Stories (illustrating the 10 páramí), by I. B. Horner (London 1957, Luzac & Co.); Buddhavamsa & Cariyapitaka. tr. by I. B. Horner (Minor Anthologies III, Sacred Books of the Buddhists. PTS). - Narada Thera, The Buddha & His Teachings, Ch. 41; Parami (BPS) - The treatise on the perfections from the Com. to Cariyapitaka has been translated in The Discourse on the All-Embracing Net of Views (Brahmajala Sutta, with Com.). tr. by Bhikkhu Bodhi (BPS) .
Not in the suttas that I have ever seen. As Ven Paññāsikhara pointed out, it is in the later Apadanas, Buddhavamsa, and Cariyapitaka, texts that reflect a post-mortem "Buddha-ology."Chris wrote:Are the 10 Paramis or Perfections clearly mentioned in the Suttas ...
And neither does the name Siddattha, which seems to part of the "biography" that arose post-mortem.Chris wrote: Interesting that teachings about this doesn't seem to appear in the Suttas ....
Paññāsikhara wrote:And speaking of things that only appear in later-ish literature, how about this favorite:
Which many like to cite as a sort of be-all-and-end-all of what is, or is not, Dhamma.
retrofuturist wrote: The anatta, anicca and dukkha triad are frequently listed together in the suttas, but were not given the collective name of tilakkhaṇaŋ until later. Thankfully the application of this over-arching term has not (as far as I have discerned) led to any distortion of meaning and significance of the original terms.Alas, the above quotation from the Visuddhimagga shows the same principle does not true for the paramis.
Vism wrote:(1) they give alms (dána, q.v.) to all beings so that they may be happy, without Investigating whether they are worthy or not.
Vism IX, 124 ... for the Great Beings' minds retain their balance by giving preference to beings' welfare, by dislike of beings' suffering, by desire for the various successes achieved by beings to last, and by impartiality towards all beings. [This, of course, is a summary of the four Brahmaviharas] And to all beings they give gifts, which are a source of pleasure, without discriminating thus: 'It must be given to this one; it must not be given to this one'. ...
mikenz66 wrote:I don't really think that it is relevant how some might misinterpret or overexpand things when analysing the classical Tipitika and Commentaries. I don't see anything in the passage itself (at least as I read it in Ven Nanamoli's version) that contradicts the Canon.
How much time is required to accomplish them?
As a minimum, four incalculables (asa"nkheyya) and a hundred thousand great aeons (mahaakappa); as a middle figure, eight incalculables and a hundred thousand great aeons; and as a maximum, sixteen incalculables and a hundred thousand great aeons.
it was not recommended in the oldest authentic records of the Buddha's teaching...
...As time passed, however, perhaps partly through the influence of the Mahaayaana, the bodhisattva ideal must have come to acquire an increasing appeal for the minds of the Buddhist populace, and the need became felt for a work explaining in a practical manner the factors and phases of the paaramitaa path without deviating from the established doctrinal position of the Theravaada. Works expounding the bodhisattva career abounded in the Mahaayaana schools, since this was their axial concern, but a comparable work was lacking in Theravaada circles. To meet this need, apparently, AAcariya Dhammapaala composed his "Treatise on the Paaramiis," which is found in at least two places in the Paali exegetical literature, in a complete version in the Cariyaapi.taka A.t.thakathaa, and in an abridged version in the .tiikaa or subcommentary to the Brahmajaala Sutta.
Bhikkhu Bodhi wrote:It should be noted that in established Theravaada tradition the paaramiis are not regarded as a discipline peculiar to candidates for Buddhahood alone but as practices which must be fulfilled by all aspirants to enlightenment and deliverance, whether as Buddhas, paccekabuddhas, or disciples. What distinguishes the supreme bodhisattva from aspirants in the other two vehicles is the degree to which the paaramiis must be cultivated and the length of time they must be pursued. But the qualities themselves are universal requisites for deliverance, which all must fulfill to at least a minimal degree to merit the fruits of the liberating path.
Paññāsikhara wrote:I'm going to be lazy, and ask Retro to look it up, but are the comments above in the Vsm talking about sambuddha bodhisattas, or other types of bodhisattvas? (like paccekas or savakas?) I ask, because we must keep in mind that the (later at least) Theravada uses the term "bodhisatta" to talk about all types, not just those who seek samma sambuddhata. If it does include these others, then it is referring to all practitioners.
"When he has understood thus the special efficacy of each [Brahmavihara] resides respectively in 'Having beauty as the highest', etc, he should understand how they bring to perfection all the good states beginning with giving. For the Great Beings' minds retain their balance by giving preference to beings' welfare, by dislike of beings' suffering, by desire for the various successes achieved by beings to last, and by impartiality towards all beings. [This, of course, is a summary of the four Brahmaviharas] And to all beings they give gifts, which are a source of pleasure, without discriminating thus: 'It must be given to this one; it must not be given to this one'. ...
Paññāsikhara wrote:Perhaps the difference being, as "systemization" was the norm, rather than the direct "What you have to do right now" teachings that the Buddha gave to his disciples who were obviously mostly quite spiritually advanced persons, these slightly later teachings are saying "What one has to do as a whole", outlining a complete path from beginning to end, to be followed by anyone.
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