Yes, the Buddha taught vipassana.
"I have heard that at one time the Blessed One was staying in Savatthi at Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's monastery. There he addressed the monks, saying, "Monks."
"Yes, lord," the monks responded to him.
The Blessed One said, "Monks, Sariputta is wise, of great discernment, deep discernment, wide... joyous... rapid... quick... penetrating discernment.
For half a month, Sariputta clearly saw insight 
into mental qualities one after another. This is what occurred to Sariputta through insight into mental qualities one after another. ......"1.
"Clearly saw insight": In Pali, this is vipassanam vipassi, which could be translated literally as "clearly saw clear seeing" or "insighted insight." The Commentary states that the half month mentioned here refers to the half month between Ven. Sariputta's ordination and his attainment of arahantship, described in MN 74. These two suttas treat Sariputta's attainment from two different perspectives. This sutta shows it from the standpoint of his mastery of the four jhanas and the formless attainments based on the fourth jhana. That sutta shows it as occurring when he starts reflecting on a point while listening to a discourse that the Buddha is giving to his nephew. To put the two suttas together, we can infer that prior to the discourse given in MN 74, Sariputta had mastered the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception. While listening to the discourse, he reflected on the point that the Buddha recommended abandoning all mental qualities through direct knowledge. This would have led him to the cessation of perception and feeling (during which he would not be listening to the discourse) and so to Awakening.http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka ... n.html#n-1
and these other readings from Access to Insight:
Vipassana (insight). See also Samatha (tranquillity); Tilakkhana (three characteristics of existence).
~ is developed in tandem with samatha (tranquillity): SN 35.205, AN 2.30, AN 4.170, AN 10.71
As direct knowledge of the five aggregates (khandha):
Analyzing the five aggregates until their appeal is shattered: SN 23.2
Developing skill in applying the four noble truths to the five aggregates: SN 22.56
Developing skill in seeing seven qualities in each of the five aggregates: SN 22.57
A contemplation for every meditator, from beginner to arahant: SN 22.122
Like taking apart a lute in search of its sound: SN 35.205
As direct knowledge of the six sense bases (salayatana): MN 149
Reflection on not-self as a basis for insight: SN 22.59
"Is Vipassana the same as Theravada?" (Frequently Asked Question)
Basic Themes (Lee)
"One Tool Among Many: The Place of Vipassana in Buddhist Practice" (Thanissaro)
"Stop and Think" in Food for Thought (Lee)
Straight From the Heart (Boowa)
Things as They Are (Boowa)
Satipatthana Vipassana: Insight Through Mindfulness (Mahasi)
"Two Styles of Insight Meditation" (Bodhi) http://www.accesstoinsight.org/index-su ... #vipassana