The name "the Buddha" a later development?

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The name "the Buddha" a later development?

Postby dhammapal » Tue Dec 21, 2010 6:26 am

Did people in Ancient India use the name "the Buddha" when referring to Him or was it a later development?

Thanks / dhammapal.
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Re: The name "the Buddha" a later development?

Postby cooran » Tue Dec 21, 2010 7:36 am

Hello dhammapal,

A few references to get you going:

In the wilderness,
in the shade of a tree,
in an empty building, monks,
recollect the Buddha.
Your fear won't exist.

If you can't recall the Buddha
— best in the world,
the bull of men —
then you should recall the Dhamma:
leading outward, well-taught.
http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka ... ml#nofear1

"Mahanama, you should develop this recollection of the Buddha while you are walking, while you are standing, while you are sitting, while you are lying down, while you are busy at work, while you are resting in your home crowded with children.
http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka ... all-Buddha

Confident, recollect
the immeasurable Buddha.
Your body pervaded with rapture,
you'll be at the height
of continual joy.
http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka ... .than.html

with metta
Chris
---The trouble is that you think you have time---
---Worry is the Interest, paid in advance, on a debt you may never owe---
---It's not what happens to you in life that is important ~ it's what you do with it ---
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Re: The name "the Buddha" a later development?

Postby yuttadhammo » Tue Dec 21, 2010 2:54 pm

atha kho rājagahako seṭṭhī dāse ca kammakāre ca āṇāpetvā yena anāthapiṇḍiko gahapati tenupasaṅkami, upasaṅkamitvā anāthapiṇḍikena gahapatinā saddhiṃ paṭisammoditvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi.


And then, the wealthy man of Rajagaha, ordering around slaves and workers, approached Anathapindika the househoulder. Having approached, he sat down to one side and exchanged pleasantries with Anathapindika the househoulder.

ekamantaṃ nisinnaṃ kho rājagahakaṃ seṭṭhiṃ anāthapiṇḍiko gahapati etadavoca "pubbe kho tvaṃ, gahapati, mayi āgate sabbakiccāni nikkhipitvā mamaññeva saddhiṃ paṭisammodasi.


To the wealthy man of Rajagaha sitting there to one side, Anathapindika the househoulder spoke thus:

"Verily, in the past you, householder, when come to me, laid aside all affairs first, and only then exchanged pleasantries with me.

sodāni tvaṃ vikkhittarūpo dāse ca kammakāre ca āṇāpesi 'tena hi, bhaṇe, kālasseva uṭṭhāya yāguyo pacatha, bhattāni pacatha, sūpāni sampādetha, uttaribhaṅgāni sampādethā' 'ti.


"Here, however, you, with a disturbed appearance, order around slaves and workers thus, 'There, good sir, wake up very early and cook porridge, cook rices, prepare curries, prepare appetizers.'

kiṃ nu kho te, gahapati, āvāho vā bhavissati, vivāho vā bhavissati, mahāyañño vā paccupaṭṭhito, rājā vā māgadho seniyo bimbisāro nimantito svātanāya saddhiṃ balakāyenā" "ti?


"What has come to you, householder? Will there be a wedding ceremony, or will there be a wedding feast, or a great sacrifice presented, or is the king of Magadha, the soldier Bimbisara invited for tommorrow together with the bulk of his army?"

"na me, gahapati, āvāho vā bhavissati, nāpi vivāho vā bhavissati, nāpi rājā vā māgadho seniyo bimbisāro nimantito svātanāya saddhiṃ balakāyena; api ca me mahāyañño paccupaṭṭhito; svātanāya buddhappamukho saṅgho nimantito" "ti.


"Not for me, householder, will there be a wedding ceremony, nor will there be a wedding feast, nor is the king of Magadha, the soldier Bimbisara invited for tommorrow together with the bulk of his army. There will, however, be by me a great sacrifice presented; for tomorrow, the Sangha with the Buddha as head has been invited."

"buddhoti tvaṃ, gahapati, vadesī" "ti? "buddho tyāhaṃ, gahapati, vadāmī" "ti. "buddhoti tvaṃ, gahapati, vadesī" "ti? "buddho tyāhaṃ, gahapati, vadāmī" "ti. "buddhoti tvaṃ, gahapati, vadesī" "ti? "buddho tyāhaṃ, gahapati, vadāmī" "ti.


"Did you say 'Buddha', householder?"

"I said 'Buddha', householder."

"Did you say 'Buddha', householder?"

"I said 'Buddha', householder."

"Did you say 'Buddha', householder?"

"I said 'Buddha', householder."

[Yes, it is repeated three times in the Pali. -yd]

"ghosopi kho eso, gahapati, dullabho lokasmiṃ yadidaṃ buddho buddhoti. sakkā nu kho, gahapati, imaṃ kālaṃ taṃ bhagavantaṃ dassanāya upasaṅkamituṃ arahantaṃ sammāsambuddha "nti?


"That sound is indeed, householder, difficult to obtain in the world, which is to say, the sound "Buddha, buddha." Is it at all possible, householder, at this time, to approach in order to see that Blessed one, who is a worthy one, a rightly self-awakened Buddha?"

"akālo kho, gahapati, imaṃ kālaṃ taṃ bhagavantaṃ dassanāya upasaṅkamituṃ arahantaṃ sammāsambuddhaṃ. svedāni tvaṃ kālena taṃ bhagavantaṃ dassanāya upasaṅkamissasi arahantaṃ sammāsambuddha "nti.


"This time is indeed not, householder, the right time to approach in order to see that Blessed one, who is a worthy one, a rightly self-awakened Buddha. Tomorrow, here, you will, at the right time, approach in order to see that Blessed one, who is a worthy one, a rightly self-awakened Buddha."

atha kho anāthapiṇḍiko gahapati svedānāhaṃ kālena taṃ bhagavantaṃ dassanāya upasaṅkamissāmi arahantaṃ sammāsambuddhanti buddhagatāya satiyā nipajjitvā rattiyā sudaṃ tikkhattuṃ vuṭṭhāsi pabhātaṃ maññamāno.


Thereupon, Anathapindika the householder, thinking, "tomorrow, I will at the right time approach in order to see that Blessed one, who is a worthy one, a rightly self-awakened Buddha", lying down with recollection towards the Buddha, woke a total of three times during the night, thinking it to be dawn.

-- Vin. CV 6. (senāsanakkhandhakaṃ), anāthapiṇḍikavatthu
Last edited by yuttadhammo on Tue Dec 21, 2010 5:01 pm, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: The name "the Buddha" a later development?

Postby kirk5a » Tue Dec 21, 2010 3:34 pm

Interesting, thank you. Why is the Pali "buddho" translated as "Buddha"?
"When one thing is practiced & pursued, ignorance is abandoned, clear knowing arises, the conceit 'I am' is abandoned, latent tendencies are uprooted, fetters are abandoned. Which one thing? Mindfulness immersed in the body." -AN 1.230
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Re: The name "the Buddha" a later development?

Postby dhammapal » Wed Dec 22, 2010 2:36 am

Isn't the Buddha usually called "Bhagava" (the Blessed One) in the Pali Canon? I like "the Buddha" and have often changed to that name when memorizing suttas (in English).

Thanks / dhammapal.
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Re: The name "the Buddha" a later development?

Postby mikenz66 » Wed Dec 22, 2010 4:35 am

This happens to be from the evening chant http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/auth ... ml#evening but it is found in many suttas, e.g. http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka ... ml#nofear1
Itipi so bhagavā arahaṃ sammā-sambuddho,
He is a Blessed One, a Worthy One, a Rightly Self-awakened One,

Vijjā-caraṇa-sampanno sugato lokavidū,
consummate in knowledge & conduct, one who has gone the good way, knower of the cosmos,

Anuttaro purisa-damma-sārathi satthā deva-manussānaṃ buddho bhagavāti.
unexcelled trainer of those who can be taught, teacher of human & divine beings; awakened; blessed.

:anjali:
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Re: The name "the Buddha" a later development?

Postby mikenz66 » Wed Dec 22, 2010 4:41 am

kirk5a wrote:Interesting, thank you. Why is the Pali "buddho" translated as "Buddha"?

I'm waiting for one of our Pali experts to explain this in detail, but, in short, Pali has a complex system of endings for adjectives, etc, that depend on the subject.

From the Morning Chant http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/auth ... ml#morning
"Rūpaṃ aniccaṃ,
"Form is inconstant,

Vedanā aniccā,
Feeling is inconstant,

:anjali:
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Re: The name "the Buddha" a later development?

Postby cooran » Wed Dec 22, 2010 6:10 am

Hello dhammapal,

Nouns which denote males are masculine; those which denote females are feminine; but nouns which denote inanimate things and qualities are not always neuter. Two words denoting the same thing may be, sometimes, in different genders. Likewise one word, without changing its form, may possess two or more genders e.g. geha (house) is masculine and neuter, Kucchi (belly) is masculine and feminine. Therefore it should be remembered that gender in Pali is a grammatical distinction existing in words, it is called a grammatical gender.

This might give you an idea:

Masculine Nouns and Present Tense
http://www.tipitaka.net/pali/pali/pal0101.htm
Grammar Summary Cards - Nouns
http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/auth ... y-noun.pdf

with metta
Chris
---The trouble is that you think you have time---
---Worry is the Interest, paid in advance, on a debt you may never owe---
---It's not what happens to you in life that is important ~ it's what you do with it ---
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Re: The name "the Buddha" a later development?

Postby yuttadhammo » Wed Dec 22, 2010 7:58 am

kirk5a wrote:Interesting, thank you. Why is the Pali "buddho" translated as "Buddha"?


buddha is an -a ending noun. Standard pali nouns have six endings:

-a -aa -i -ii -u -uu

Standard masculine nouns can have five endings:

-a -i -ii -u -uu

Standard feminine nouns can have five endings:

-aa -i -ii -u -uu

Standard neuter nouns can have three endings:

-a -i -u

Strictly speaking, the noun itself has no meaning until it is modified by one of the twelve endings (vibhatti):

si yo
a.m yo
naa hi
sa na.m
smaa hi
sa na.m
smi.m su

The ending -o comes from adding "si" to an "-a" ending masculine noun (don't ask me why):

buddha + si = buddho

Each one of the twelve endings gives a specific meaning to the word it changes. Here, "si" is the nominative (agent) singular case ending, so "buddha+si" gives the meaning of "the (or a) buddha" (as agent in the sentence). The Pali word used for referring to a single Buddha as the agent in a sentence, therefore, is "Buddho".

Other case endings give different meanings. For example, to refer to a single Buddha as the object of the sentence, use "a.m":

buddha + a.m = buddha.m

The meaning here is also "the/a Buddha", but it is now referring to the object. Some examples of the difference:

Buddho lokasmi.m uppanno - The (or A) Buddha arises in the world.

Ye keci buddha.m sara.na.m gataa se - Whoever has gone to the Buddha for refuge.

Since the root word before the change is "buddha", and English doesn't use declensions, in cases where we don't translate the word, we just stick with the undeclined stem, e.g. "buddha", "dhamma", "kamma", etc. which are all -a ending nouns.

Isn't the Buddha usually called "Bhagava" (the Blessed One) in the Pali Canon? I like "the Buddha" and have often changed to that name when memorizing suttas (in English).


Bhagava is a word used in India to refer to a spiritual leader - all Hindu teachers and saints are called Bhagavan. That word, therefore, is used for the Buddha in the same way, when referring to him respectfully. The Buddha mainly referred to himself as Tathagata - "thus gone". Ultimately, though, he is the Buddha, since this the most important aspect of who he was, his knowledge - "bodhi" and awakening "pabodhana", both of which come from the same stem "budh" as Buddha.
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Re: The name "the Buddha" a later development?

Postby dhammapal » Wed Dec 22, 2010 8:37 am

yuttadhammo wrote:
dhammapal wrote:Isn't the Buddha usually called "Bhagava" (the Blessed One) in the Pali Canon? I like "the Buddha" and have often changed to that name when memorizing suttas (in English).


Bhagava is a word used in India to refer to a spiritual leader - all Hindu teachers and saints are called Bhagavan. That word, therefore, is used for the Buddha in the same way, when referring to him respectfully. The Buddha mainly referred to himself as Tathagata - "thus gone". Ultimately, though, he is the Buddha, since this the most important aspect of who he was, his knowledge - "bodhi" and awakening "pabodhana", both of which come from the same stem "budh" as Buddha.

So as people from another culture we use the name "the Buddha" to distinguish him from Lord God etc. especially when talking to non-Buddhists.

Thanks / dhammapal.
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Re: The name "the Buddha" a later development?

Postby kirk5a » Wed Dec 22, 2010 4:20 pm

Thank you Bhante, for that detailed response.

As long as we're talking buddho/buddha - then for those who practice the "buddho" meditation practice, I wonder why "buddho" is used instead of "buddha"?
"When one thing is practiced & pursued, ignorance is abandoned, clear knowing arises, the conceit 'I am' is abandoned, latent tendencies are uprooted, fetters are abandoned. Which one thing? Mindfulness immersed in the body." -AN 1.230
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Re: The name "the Buddha" a later development?

Postby Kenshou » Wed Dec 22, 2010 10:03 pm

It's a little more comfortable to repeat "buddho" than "buddha" since "u" and "o" are more similar sounds than "u" and "a" are, however I believe this is often repeated mentally, so that might not be a very good explanation.

I don't think that in actual use the undeclined "buddha" is ever actually used for anything, and the next-most-neutral real world use would probably be in the nominative case. So maybe that's why.
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Re: The name "the Buddha" a later development?

Postby yuttadhammo » Thu Dec 23, 2010 4:00 am

kirk5a wrote:As long as we're talking buddho/buddha - then for those who practice the "buddho" meditation practice, I wonder why "buddho" is used instead of "buddha"?


This is because it is a reflection on the quality of the buddha as one who knows. It is part of the larger reflection, "iti pi so bhagavaa araha.m sammaasabuddho vijjaacaranasampanno sugato lokaviduu anuttaro purisadamasaaratthi satthaa devamanussaana.m buddho bhagavaa'ti"

When referring to a third person, one has to follow the declensions mentioned above. Only when addressing the second person does one use the undeclined form "Buddha". The meaning of "Buddho" is "The one who knows"; "Buddha" would either mean nothing (as an undeclined root word), or mean "O one who knows!" (as a form of address).
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Re: The name "the Buddha" a later development?

Postby Individual » Thu Dec 23, 2010 5:24 am

Interesting. Didn't know this. :)
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