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Pali Term: Dukkha - Dhamma Wheel

Pali Term: Dukkha

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Dmytro
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Pali Term: Dukkha

Postby Dmytro » Mon Oct 25, 2010 5:06 pm

Hello Pali friends,

To interpret this key term, it's worthwhile to investigate the context where another word is used in place of 'dukkha', Bhara sutta:

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka ... .than.html

This parallel with 'bhāra' (burdern, load) helps to understand "dukkha" as something diffucult to bear, a hardship. This is also an etymological origin of this word, where "du" refers to "difficult, hard", and "kha" to "bear, endure".

An article from Monier-Willams dictionary:

1 duHkha 1 mfn. (according to grammarians properly written %{duS-kha} and said to be from %{dus} and %{kha} [cf. %{su-kha4}] ; but more probably a Pra1kritized form for %{duH-stha} q.v.) uneasy , uncomfortable , unpleasant , difficult R. Hariv. (compar. %{-tara} MBh. R.) ; n. (ifc. f. %{A}) uneasiness , pain , sorrow , trouble , difficulty S3Br. xiv , 7 , 2 , 15 Mn. MBh. &c. (personified as the son of Naraka and Vedana1 VP.) ; (%{am}) ind. with difficulty , scarcely , hardly (also %{at} and %{ena}) MBh. R. ; impers. it is difficult to or to be (inf.with an acc. or nom. R. vii , 6 , 38 Bhag. v , 6) ; %{duHkham} - %{as} , to be sad or uneasy Ratn. iv , 19/20 ; - %{kR} , to cause or feel pain Ya1jn5. ii , 218 MBh. xii , 5298.
2 duHkha 2 Nom. P. %{-khati} , to pain SaddhP.

http://webapps.uni-koeln.de/tamil/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dukkha

Theare are also other contexts where "bhāra"is equated with "dukkha":

Bhāra [fr. bhṛ, Vedic bhāra; cp. bhara] 1. anything to carry, a load Vin iii.278 (Bdhgh; dāru˚ a load of wood). bhāraŋ vahati to carry a load A i.84; VvA 23. -- garu˚ a heavy load, as "adj." "carrying a heavy load" J v.439 (of a woman,=pregnant). -- bhāratara (adj.<-> compar.) forming a heavier load Miln 155. -- Cp. ati˚, sam˚. -- 2. a load, cartload (as measure of quantity) VvA 12 (saṭṭhi -- sakaṭa˚ -- parimāṇa); PvA 102 (aneka˚parimāṇa). -- 3. (fig.) a difficult thing, a burden or duty, i. e. a charge, business, office, task, affair Vism. 375; J i.292; ii.399; iv.427; vi.413; DhA i.6, 111. Several bhārā or great tasks are mentioned exemplifying the meaning of "gambhīra" & "duddasa" (saccāni) at VbhA 141, viz. mahā -- samuddaŋ manthetvā ojāya nīharaṇaŋ; Sineru -- pādato vālikāya uddharaṇaŋ; pabbataŋ pīḷetvā rasassa nīharaṇaŋ. -- 4. (fig.) in metaphors for the burden of (the factors of renewed) existence (the khandhas and similar agents). Esp. in phrase panna -- bhāra "one whose load (or burden) has been laid down," one who has attained Arahantship M i.139; A iii.84; S i.233; Dh 402 (=ohita -- khandha -- bhāra DhA iv.168); Sn 626 (same expln at SnA 467), 914 (expld as patita -- bhāra, oropita˚, nikkhitta˚ Nd1 334, where 3 bhāras in this sense are distinguished, viz. khandha˚, kilesa˚, abhisankhāra˚); Th 1, 1021. So at Vism 512 with ref. to the ariya -- saccāni, viz. bhāro= dukkha -- saccaŋ, bhār' ādānaŋ=samuda -- saccaŋ, bhāranikkhepanaŋ=nirodha -- s., bhāra -- nikkhepan'upāya = magga.

http://dsal.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philol ... :3550.pali

Metta, Dmytro


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Re: Pali Term: Dukkha

Postby son of dhamma » Mon Dec 20, 2010 12:01 pm

Dukkha is also referred to in the Pali Canon as aging, sickness, death, sorrow :weep: , grief :embarassed: , woe, lamentation :cry: , and despair :o ; in other words that which arises dependently of birth (dependent origination). Dukkha is our immediate experience of suffering. (1st Noble Truth)
with metta
Sometimes no Buddhas arise in the world. Sometimes they do. When it happens, it is for the welfare and happiness of men, out of compassion for all creatures. For a long, long time he has been working to become a Buddha. He met other Buddhas along the way. And after his long striving he attains his final life, yet not without showing everyone else how to get there.

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Re: Pali Term: Dukkha

Postby frank k » Sat Jan 01, 2011 5:03 pm

Did the term dukkhā have common usage among regular folks before the Buddha adopted it as a noble truth?
http://www.audtip.org Audio Sutta Recordings

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Re: Pali Term: Dukkha

Postby David N. Snyder » Sat Jan 01, 2011 5:10 pm

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Re: Pali Term: Dukkha

Postby frank k » Sat Jan 01, 2011 5:16 pm

http://www.audtip.org Audio Sutta Recordings

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Re: Pali Term: Dukkha

Postby mikenz66 » Sat Jan 01, 2011 7:24 pm


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Re: Pali Term: Dukkha

Postby cooran » Sat Jan 01, 2011 10:02 pm

Hello all,

My teacher, Patrick Kearney, has discussed this during a Retreat and said that this term literally translates as a badly fitting axle in a wheel. The sense of a “difficult
grind” helps to provide meaning to this translation.

I'll see if I can get any more detailed references to the origin.

with metta
Chris
---The trouble is that you think you have time---
---Worry is the Interest, paid in advance, on a debt you may never owe---
---It's not what happens to you in life that is important ~ it's what you do with it ---

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Re: Pali Term: Dukkha

Postby mikenz66 » Sun Jan 02, 2011 9:04 am


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Re: Pali Term: Dukkha

Postby cooran » Sun Jan 02, 2011 9:11 am

Thanks Mike.

Unfortunately I can't check with Patrick for some considerable time as he is on Retreat in Malaysia until early March. :tongue:

with metta
Chris
---The trouble is that you think you have time---
---Worry is the Interest, paid in advance, on a debt you may never owe---
---It's not what happens to you in life that is important ~ it's what you do with it ---

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Re: Pali Term: Dukkha

Postby Buckwheat » Sun Apr 15, 2012 5:37 pm

Sotthī hontu nirantaraṃ - May you forever be well.

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Re: Pali Term: Dukkha

Postby Dmytro » Tue Apr 17, 2012 4:24 am



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Re: Pali Term: Dukkha

Postby piotr » Tue Apr 17, 2012 6:49 am

Bhagavaṃmūlakā no, bhante, dhammā...

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Re: Pali Term: Dukkha

Postby Dmytro » Tue Apr 17, 2012 1:28 pm



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Etymology of 'dukkha'

Postby LinLin64 » Sat Mar 01, 2014 2:46 pm

I was listening to The Enlightened Brain' by Rick Hanson (a series of CDs) in which he says that the pali word dukkha is composed of

Du - meaning not good
Kha - meaning where the hub of a wheel meets an axle.

He offers an understanding of dukkha that is a wobbliness, an unsatisfactory-ness.

Is that the correct translation of the roots of the word? I find it an interesting and helpful translation, but would like to know if it is indeed correct.

Thanks in advance.

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Re: Etymology of 'dukkha'

Postby rowboat » Sat Mar 01, 2014 3:53 pm

Rain soddens what is covered up,
It does not sodden what is open.
Therefore uncover what is covered
That the rain will not sodden it.
Ud 5.5

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Re: Pali Term: Dukkha

Postby Kumara » Sun Mar 02, 2014 12:29 am

I'm not just a monk. I'm a human being. — Sayadaw U Jotika

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Re: Pali Term: Dukkha

Postby bharadwaja » Wed Apr 02, 2014 1:55 am

A very interesting question. Sukha/Dukkha distinction seems to be related to the axle-wheel of an ox-cart.

When the axle is in place, the cart moves smoothly (with sukha/equanimity). Else it rattles/wobbles (with dukkha/flux).

These words are probably so old i.e. going back to Proto-Indo-European times that they may have meant other things at other times.

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Re: Pali Term: Dukkha

Postby Dmytro » Thu Apr 03, 2014 4:48 am



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Re: Pali Term: Dukkha

Postby binocular » Thu Apr 03, 2014 8:25 am

Ven. Thanissaro mentioned once that explaining "dukkha" with the axle of a wheel analogy can give rise to the idea that the key to happiness is to have a well-fitting and greased axle; that the key to happiness is to make sure that the wheel runs smoothly on the axle. As opposed to doing away with the cycling altogether.

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Re: Pali Term: Dukkha

Postby Dmytro » Thu Apr 03, 2014 9:09 am




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