Titles of Mara (in Pali & English)

A discussion on all aspects of Theravāda Buddhism

Titles of Mara (in Pali & English)

Postby phil » Wed Mar 11, 2009 7:08 am

Hi all

I have enjoyed the thread with the many titles of the Buddha. Quite inspiring to read through them aloud. Could anyone supply a similar list for Mara? A friend at another group told me about these "5 Mara's that the Buddha defeated."

> (1) Maara of defilements (Kilesa Maara)
> (2) Maara of the aggregates (Khandha Maara)
> (3) Maara of kamma-formations (Abhisankhaara Maara)
> (4) Maara as deity (Devaputta Maara)
> (5) Maara as death (Maccu Maara)

Metta,

Phil
Kammalakkhano , bhikkhave, bālo, kammalakkhano pandito, apadānasobhanī paññāti
(The fool is characterized by his/her actions/the wise one is characterized by his/her actions/Wisdom shines forth in behaviour.)
(AN 3.2 Lakkhana Sutta)
User avatar
phil
 
Posts: 520
Joined: Tue Mar 03, 2009 5:08 am
Location: Tokyo

Re: Titles of Mara (in Pali & English)

Postby Ngawang Drolma. » Wed Mar 11, 2009 7:16 am

Thanks Phil, this is a good topic and a good list you gave :anjali:
User avatar
Ngawang Drolma.
 
Posts: 805
Joined: Wed Dec 31, 2008 7:38 pm

Re: Titles of Mara (in Pali & English)

Postby phil » Thu Mar 12, 2009 1:07 am

Hi all

I take it there aren't many such titles.

One I came across in Dhammapada this morning is macaccuraajassa which means "king of death" according to the translation I have.

A related question - I've seen reference to the "armies of Mara." Could someone tell me what they are, along with the Pali, if possible. Thanks.

Metta,

Phil
Kammalakkhano , bhikkhave, bālo, kammalakkhano pandito, apadānasobhanī paññāti
(The fool is characterized by his/her actions/the wise one is characterized by his/her actions/Wisdom shines forth in behaviour.)
(AN 3.2 Lakkhana Sutta)
User avatar
phil
 
Posts: 520
Joined: Tue Mar 03, 2009 5:08 am
Location: Tokyo

Re: Titles of Mara (in Pali & English)

Postby sukhamanveti » Thu Mar 12, 2009 1:11 am

Some titles of Mara:

Papima "Evil One"
Kanha "Dark One"
Adhipati "Ruler"
Pamattabandu "Friend of the Heedless"
Namuci (usually left untranslated because most translators are unsure)
Mara "Bringer of Death"
Antaka "End-Maker"
Sīlaṃ balaṃ appaṭimaṃ.
Sīlaṃ āvudhamuttamaṃ.
Sīlamābharaṇaṃ seṭṭhaṃ.
Sīlaṃ kavacamabbhutaṃ.


Virtue is a matchless power.
Virtue is the greatest weapon.
Virtue is the best adornment.
Virtue is a wonderful armor.

Theragatha 614


Sabbapāpassa akaraṇaṃ,
kusalassa upasampadā,
Sacittapariyodapanaṃ,
etaṃ buddhāna sāsanaṃ.


Refraining from all wrong-doing,
Undertaking the good,
Purifying the mind,
This is the teaching of the buddhas.

Dhammapada v. 183/14.5
User avatar
sukhamanveti
 
Posts: 169
Joined: Sun Mar 08, 2009 7:33 pm
Location: U.S.A.

Re: Titles of Mara (in Pali & English)

Postby sukhamanveti » Thu Mar 12, 2009 1:17 am

phil wrote:Hi all

I take it there aren't many such titles.

One I came across in Dhammapada this morning is macaccuraajassa which means "king of death" according to the translation I have.

A related question - I've seen reference to the "armies of Mara." Could someone tell me what they are, along with the Pali, if possible. Thanks.

Metta,

Phil


His armies are named in Sutta Nipata 3.2 verses 436-439. K.R. Norman renders them: sensual pleasures, discontent, hunger and thirst, craving, sloth and torpor, fear, doubt, hypocrisy and obstinacy, gain, renown, honor, fame falsely received, extoling oneself and disparaging others. I don't have the Pali at the moment.
Sīlaṃ balaṃ appaṭimaṃ.
Sīlaṃ āvudhamuttamaṃ.
Sīlamābharaṇaṃ seṭṭhaṃ.
Sīlaṃ kavacamabbhutaṃ.


Virtue is a matchless power.
Virtue is the greatest weapon.
Virtue is the best adornment.
Virtue is a wonderful armor.

Theragatha 614


Sabbapāpassa akaraṇaṃ,
kusalassa upasampadā,
Sacittapariyodapanaṃ,
etaṃ buddhāna sāsanaṃ.


Refraining from all wrong-doing,
Undertaking the good,
Purifying the mind,
This is the teaching of the buddhas.

Dhammapada v. 183/14.5
User avatar
sukhamanveti
 
Posts: 169
Joined: Sun Mar 08, 2009 7:33 pm
Location: U.S.A.

Re: Titles of Mara (in Pali & English)

Postby Dhammanando » Thu Mar 12, 2009 1:26 am

The Abhidhānappadīpikā gives eight. Translated according to the tika's explanation:

Antaka – “The Endmaker”
Vasavattī – “The Wielder of Power”
Pāpimā – “The Malign”
Pajāpati – “Lord of the Generation”
Pamattabandhu – “The Kinsman of the Heedless”
Kaṇha – “The Black One”
Māra – “The Killer”
Namuci – “The Unfreed”
    ...and this thought arose in the mind of the Blessed One:
    “Who lives without reverence lives miserably.”
    Uruvela Sutta, A.ii.20

    It were endless to dispute upon everything that is disputable.
    — William Penn Some Fruits of Solitude,
User avatar
Dhammanando
 
Posts: 1265
Joined: Tue Dec 30, 2008 10:44 pm
Location: Wat Pa Mieng Khun Pang, Chiang Mai

Re: Titles of Mara (in Pali & English)

Postby sukhamanveti » Thu Mar 12, 2009 1:57 pm

phil wrote:Hi all

I take it there aren't many such titles.

One I came across in Dhammapada this morning is macaccuraajassa which means "king of death" according to the translation I have.

A related question - I've seen reference to the "armies of Mara." Could someone tell me what they are, along with the Pali, if possible. Thanks.

Metta,

Phil


Mara’s Armies according to Sutta Nipata 3.2

‘‘Kāmā te paṭhamā senā, dutiyā arati vuccati;
Tatiyā khuppipāsā te, catutthī taṇhā pavuccati.

‘‘Pañcamaṃ [pañcamī (sī. pī.)] thinamiddhaṃ te, chaṭṭhā bhīrū pavuccati;
Sattamī vicikicchā te, makkho thambho te aṭṭhamo.

‘‘Lābho siloko sakkāro, micchāladdho ca yo yaso;
Yo cattānaṃ samukkaṃse, pare ca avajānati.


1. Kāma “Sensual Pleasure” or “Sensual Desire”
2. Arati “Dislike” or “Discontent”
3. Khuppipāsā “Hunger and Thirst”
4. Taṇhā “Craving”
5. Thinamiddhaṃ “Sloth and Torpor”
6. Bhīrū “Fear”
7. Vicikicchā “Doubt”
8. Makkha “Hypocrisy” and Thambha “Obstinacy”
9. Lābho siloko sakkāro, micchāladdho ca yo yaso “Gain, fame, honor, whatever glory is wrongly received”
10. Yo cattānaṃ samukkaṃse, pare ca avajānati “Whoever exalts himself and disparages others”
Sīlaṃ balaṃ appaṭimaṃ.
Sīlaṃ āvudhamuttamaṃ.
Sīlamābharaṇaṃ seṭṭhaṃ.
Sīlaṃ kavacamabbhutaṃ.


Virtue is a matchless power.
Virtue is the greatest weapon.
Virtue is the best adornment.
Virtue is a wonderful armor.

Theragatha 614


Sabbapāpassa akaraṇaṃ,
kusalassa upasampadā,
Sacittapariyodapanaṃ,
etaṃ buddhāna sāsanaṃ.


Refraining from all wrong-doing,
Undertaking the good,
Purifying the mind,
This is the teaching of the buddhas.

Dhammapada v. 183/14.5
User avatar
sukhamanveti
 
Posts: 169
Joined: Sun Mar 08, 2009 7:33 pm
Location: U.S.A.

Re: Titles of Mara (in Pali & English)

Postby phil » Fri Mar 13, 2009 12:49 am

Hello Bhante and Sukhamanvati

Very helpful, thanks.

I think reflecting on these things are a way to reflect on the defilements. I particularly like pattamabandu, "friend of the heedless." Mara dangles the fishing hooks through sense door objects and the heedless go fishing. Mara is like a drug dealer, though of course it is all just figurative when dealing with Mara. I wonder how you say drug dealer in Pali? :tongue:

Metta,

Phil
Kammalakkhano , bhikkhave, bālo, kammalakkhano pandito, apadānasobhanī paññāti
(The fool is characterized by his/her actions/the wise one is characterized by his/her actions/Wisdom shines forth in behaviour.)
(AN 3.2 Lakkhana Sutta)
User avatar
phil
 
Posts: 520
Joined: Tue Mar 03, 2009 5:08 am
Location: Tokyo

Re: Titles of Mara (in Pali & English)

Postby phil » Fri Mar 13, 2009 7:09 am

phil wrote:
One I came across in Dhammapada this morning is macaccuraajassa which means "king of death" according to the translation I have.



Hi again. I think I got the above wrong. The previous verse mentions Yama, so that is who is being referred to above, I'm pretty sure. The most dramatic appearance of Yama in the suttanta that I can recall is when a Brahmin (?) is brought before him and asked "didn't you see the messengers of the aging, the ill and the dead, and didn't you, being an intellgient man, realize that it will happen to you too and that you should therefore resolve to do good deeds" or words to that effect before casting the poor fellow to the hells. Very impressive sutta! OK, back to Mara.

Metta,

Phil
Kammalakkhano , bhikkhave, bālo, kammalakkhano pandito, apadānasobhanī paññāti
(The fool is characterized by his/her actions/the wise one is characterized by his/her actions/Wisdom shines forth in behaviour.)
(AN 3.2 Lakkhana Sutta)
User avatar
phil
 
Posts: 520
Joined: Tue Mar 03, 2009 5:08 am
Location: Tokyo

Re: Titles of Mara (in Pali & English)

Postby sukhamanveti » Fri Mar 13, 2009 1:16 pm

phil wrote:Hello Bhante and Sukhamanvati

Very helpful, thanks.

I think reflecting on these things are a way to reflect on the defilements. I particularly like pattamabandu, "friend of the heedless." Mara dangles the fishing hooks through sense door objects and the heedless go fishing. Mara is like a drug dealer, though of course it is all just figurative when dealing with Mara. I wonder how you say drug dealer in Pali? :tongue:

Metta,

Phil


Hi Phil,

I'm glad you started this thread. Thank you.

I hadn't really given Mara's appellations or his armies much thought before. Now I'm interested. I like that the armies represent all the ways (or the principal ways?) in which Mara tries to draw us off the Path, something worth contemplating in my opinion.

Ed
Sīlaṃ balaṃ appaṭimaṃ.
Sīlaṃ āvudhamuttamaṃ.
Sīlamābharaṇaṃ seṭṭhaṃ.
Sīlaṃ kavacamabbhutaṃ.


Virtue is a matchless power.
Virtue is the greatest weapon.
Virtue is the best adornment.
Virtue is a wonderful armor.

Theragatha 614


Sabbapāpassa akaraṇaṃ,
kusalassa upasampadā,
Sacittapariyodapanaṃ,
etaṃ buddhāna sāsanaṃ.


Refraining from all wrong-doing,
Undertaking the good,
Purifying the mind,
This is the teaching of the buddhas.

Dhammapada v. 183/14.5
User avatar
sukhamanveti
 
Posts: 169
Joined: Sun Mar 08, 2009 7:33 pm
Location: U.S.A.

Re: Titles of Mara (in Pali & English)

Postby Dhammanando » Fri Mar 13, 2009 4:14 pm

Hi Phil,

phil wrote:Hi again. I think I got the above wrong. The previous verse mentions Yama, so that is who is being referred to above, I'm pretty sure.


In some places Maccuraja can be an epithet of Mara too, as in the Suttanipata's Mogharaja Sutta.

Best wisehs,
Dhammanando Bhikkhu
    ...and this thought arose in the mind of the Blessed One:
    “Who lives without reverence lives miserably.”
    Uruvela Sutta, A.ii.20

    It were endless to dispute upon everything that is disputable.
    — William Penn Some Fruits of Solitude,
User avatar
Dhammanando
 
Posts: 1265
Joined: Tue Dec 30, 2008 10:44 pm
Location: Wat Pa Mieng Khun Pang, Chiang Mai

Re: Titles of Mara (in Pali & English)

Postby sherubtse » Sun Mar 15, 2009 1:39 am

Dhammanando wrote:The Abhidhānappadīpikā gives eight. Translated according to the tika's explanation:

Antaka – “The Endmaker”
Vasavattī – “The Wielder of Power”
Pāpimā – “The Malign”
Pajāpati – “Lord of the Generation”
Pamattabandhu – “The Kinsman of the Heedless”
Kaṇha – “The Black One”
Māra – “The Killer”
Namuci – “The Unfreed”


In case anyone would like a copy of the Abhidhānappadīpikā , as quoted above by the Ven. Dhammanando, you can download it here:

http://books.google.ca/books?id=XYUTAAA ... lt#PPR3,M1

Best wishes,
Sherubtse
User avatar
sherubtse
 
Posts: 89
Joined: Fri Jan 02, 2009 9:10 pm
Location: Ontario, Canada

Re: Titles of Mara (in Pali & English)

Postby Dhammanando » Sun Mar 15, 2009 2:25 am

Here's a searchable edition of the Abhidhānappadīpikā and its ṭīkā (from the CSCD). It doesn't, however, have an English translation of the words. For that you'll need the one Sherubtse linked to.

Abhidhana.zip
(345.15 KiB) Downloaded 36 times
    ...and this thought arose in the mind of the Blessed One:
    “Who lives without reverence lives miserably.”
    Uruvela Sutta, A.ii.20

    It were endless to dispute upon everything that is disputable.
    — William Penn Some Fruits of Solitude,
User avatar
Dhammanando
 
Posts: 1265
Joined: Tue Dec 30, 2008 10:44 pm
Location: Wat Pa Mieng Khun Pang, Chiang Mai

Re: Titles of Mara (in Pali & English)

Postby phil » Sun Mar 15, 2009 11:54 pm

sukhamanveti wrote:
phil wrote:Hello Bhante and Sukhamanvati

Very helpful, thanks.

I think reflecting on these things are a way to reflect on the defilements. I particularly like pattamabandu, "friend of the heedless." Mara dangles the fishing hooks through sense door objects and the heedless go fishing. Mara is like a drug dealer, though of course it is all just figurative when dealing with Mara. I wonder how you say drug dealer in Pali? :tongue:

Metta,

Phil


Hi Phil,

I'm glad you started this thread. Thank you.

I hadn't really given Mara's appellations or his armies much thought before. Now I'm interested. I like that the armies represent all the ways (or the principal ways?) in which Mara tries to draw us off the Path, something worth contemplating in my opinion.

Ed


I agree, it's yet another angle from which to consider the defilements.

I haven't read it yet, but here is Sayadaw U Pandita (always very strong and clear on sila) on Mara's armies. (Thanks to Bhikkhu Pesala for linking to this whole book in another thread.)

http://homepage.ntlworld.com/pesala/Pan ... Sensuality

Metta,

Phil
Kammalakkhano , bhikkhave, bālo, kammalakkhano pandito, apadānasobhanī paññāti
(The fool is characterized by his/her actions/the wise one is characterized by his/her actions/Wisdom shines forth in behaviour.)
(AN 3.2 Lakkhana Sutta)
User avatar
phil
 
Posts: 520
Joined: Tue Mar 03, 2009 5:08 am
Location: Tokyo


Return to General Theravāda discussion

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: palchi and 11 guests

cron