Hello Pali friends,
Chip Hartranft writes:
Another line of inquiry is linguistic. For example, we know that the Sutta Nipāta is very old because certain case endings and grammatical constructions are recognized as archaic. This isn't just a philological matter: it may help a modern meditator better understand what the Buddha is teaching. For example, the Theravādan Satipatthāna Sutta commentaries explain “internal” and “external” to mean “in yourself” and “in somebody else,” and there are some sutta passages that echo this. However, in an older passage of the Sutta Nipāta that is also echoed later, the Buddha is said to describe “internal” and “external” differently, in ways that could be very important for our practice: it's skillful to investigate sense phenomena originating from without as well as within, or both. This is a simpler and more pragmatic understanding, and also fits the context of the Satipatthāna Sutta better because the yogi has been told to practice in solitude, not in the presence of others, and to begin in the body and its energies—internally.http://www.dharma.org/bcbs/fullmoonInsi ... tipatthana
Relavent Sutta Nipata verses, with translations by Ven. Thanissaro Bhikkhu or K.R. Norman:
205. Yathā idaṃ tathā etaṃ, yathā etaṃ tathā idaṃ;
Ajjhattañca bahiddhā ca, kāye chandaṃ virājaye.
"As this is, so is that. As that, so this." Within & without, he should let desire for the body fade away.
390. ‘‘Piṇḍañca bhikkhu samayena laddhā, eko paṭikkamma raho nisīde;
Ajjhattacintī na mano bahiddhā, nicchāraye saṅgahitattabhāvo.
Having duly obtained food, going back alone and sitting down in a secluded place, being inwardly thoughtful and not letting the mind go out to external objects, a bhikkhu should develop self-control.
521. ‘‘Yassindriyāni bhāvitāni, ajjhattaṃ bahiddhā ca sabbaloke;
Nibbijjha imaṃ parañca lokaṃ, kālaṃ kaṅkhati bhāvito sa danto.
526. ‘‘Ninhāya [ninahāya (syā.)] sabbapāpakāni, ajjhattaṃ bahiddhā ca sabbaloke;
Devamanussesu kappiyesu, kappaṃ neti tamāhu nhātako’’ti.
531. ‘‘Dubhayāni viceyya paṇḍarāni, ajjhattaṃ bahiddhā ca suddhipañño;
Kaṇhaṃ sukkaṃ upātivatto, paṇḍito tādi pavuccate tathattā.
Having considered both sense-fields, inside and outside, [having wisdom and purity, gone beyond black and white, such a one is rightly called "wise".]
532. ‘‘Asatañca satañca ñatvā dhammaṃ, ajjhattaṃ bahiddhā ca sabbaloke;
Devamanussehi pūjanīyo, saṅgaṃ jālamaticca so munī’’ti.
Knowing the doctrine of good and bad (people), inside in outside in all the world, [to be honoured by devas and men, having gone beyond attachment (and) the net], he is a "sage".
Atha kho sabhiyo paribbājako…pe… bhagavantaṃ uttariṃ pañhaṃ apucchi –
The wanderer Sabhiya ... asked the Blessed One another question.
533. ‘‘Kiṃ pattinamāhu vedaguṃ, (iti sabhiyo)
Anuviditaṃ kena kathañca vīriyavāti;
Ājāniyo kinti nāma hoti,
Puṭṭho me bhagavā byākarohi’’.
'When one has obtained what, do they call him ["knowledgeable"]?,' said Sabhiya, 'On account of what do they call one ["well-informed"? Why is one "energetic"? Why does one become "thoroughbred" by name?] Being asked by me, Blessed One, [answer.]'
534. ‘‘Vedāni viceyya kevalāni, (sabhiyāti bhagavā)
Samaṇānaṃ yānidhatthi [yānipatthi (sī. syā. pī.)] brāhmaṇānaṃ;
Sabbaṃ vedamaticca vedagū so.
'Having considered all knowledges, Sabhiya,' said the Blessed One '[those belonging to ascetics and those of brahmans, with his passion gone in respect of all sensations, having gone beyond all knowledge, he is "knowledgeable".]
535. ‘‘Anuvicca papañcanāmarūpaṃ, ajjhattaṃ bahiddhā ca rogamūlaṃ;
Sabbarogamūlabandhanā pamutto, anuvidito tādi pavuccate tathattā.
[Having gained information about diversification and name-and-form, inside and outside, the root of the disease, completely release from the root bond of all disease, such a one is rightly called "well-informed".]
536. ‘‘Virato idha sabbapāpakehi, nirayadukkhaṃ aticca vīriyavā so;
So vīriyavā padhānavā, dhīro tādi pavuccate tathattā.
Abstaining from all evils here, having gone beyond the [misery of hell, he is the abode of energy. Being energetic (and) striving, such a one is rightly called "hero".]
537. ‘‘Yassassu lunāni bandhanāni, ajjhattaṃ bahiddhā ca saṅgamūlaṃ;
Sabbasaṅgamūlabandhanā pamutto, ājāniyo tādi pavuccate tathattā’’ti.
Of whom the bonds [may] have been cut, inside and outside, the root of attchment, completely released from the root bond of all attachment, [such a one is rightly called] "thoroughbred".'
743. ‘‘Sukhaṃ vā yadi vā dukkhaṃ, adukkhamasukhaṃ saha;
Ajjhattañca bahiddhā ca, yaṃ kiñci atthi veditaṃ.
744. ‘‘Etaṃ dukkhanti ñatvāna, mosadhammaṃ palokinaṃ [palokitaṃ (sī.)];
Phussa phussa vayaṃ passaṃ, evaṃ tattha vijānati [virajjati (ka. sī.)];
Vedanānaṃ khayā bhikkhu, nicchāto parinibbuto’’ti.
Knowing that whatever is felt — pleasure, pain, neither pleasure nor pain, within or without — is stressful, deceptive, dissolving, seeing its passing away at each contact, each contact, he knows it right there: with just the ending of feeling, there is no stress coming into play.
923. ‘‘Yaṃ kiñci dhammamabhijaññā, ajjhattaṃ athavāpi bahiddhā;
Na tena thāmaṃ [mānaṃ (sī. ka.)] kubbetha, na hi sā nibbuti sataṃ vuttā.
Whatever truth he may know, within or without, he shouldn't get entrenched in connection with it, for that isn't called Unbinding by the good.
Yaṃ kiñci attano guṇaṃ jāneyya ājāneyya vijāneyya paṭivijāneyya paṭivijjheyyāti – yaṃ kiñci dhammamabhijaññā ajjhattaṃ. Atha vāpi bahiddhāti. Upajjhāyassa vā ācariyassa vā te guṇā assūti [assūti ajjhattaṃ (bahūsu)] – atha vāpi bahiddhā.
1116. ‘‘Kathaṃ satassa carato, viññāṇaṃ uparujjhati;
Bhagavantaṃ puṭṭhumāgamma, taṃ suṇoma vaco tava’’.
1117. ‘‘Ajjhattañca bahiddhā ca, vedanaṃ nābhinandato;
Evaṃ satassa carato, viññāṇaṃ uparujjhatī’’ti.
Living mindful in what way does one bring consciousness to a halt? We've come questioning to the Blessed One. Let us hear your words.
Not relishing feeling, inside or out: One living mindful in this way brings consciousness to a halt.
1118. ‘‘Yo atītaṃ ādisati, (iccāyasmā posālo) anejo chinnasaṃsayo;
Pāraguṃ sabbadhammānaṃ, atthi pañhena āgamaṃ.
1119. ‘‘Vibhūtarūpasaññissa, sabbakāyappahāyino;
Ajjhattañca bahiddhā ca, natthi kiñcīti passato;
Ñāṇaṃ sakkānupucchāmi, kathaṃ neyyo tathāvidho’’.
To one who reveals the past — unperturbed, his doubts cut through — who has gone to the beyond of all phenomena, I've come with a question. I ask the Sakyan about the knowledge of one devoid of perception of forms, who has abandoned all the body, every body, who sees, within & without, 'There is nothing': How is he to be led further on?
So, in regard to the mental processes, "bahiddhā" may mean the direction of origin, "(coming from) outside".
For example, the mind is secluded from the perceptual images (nimitta) which have an outside source:
Arahato rūpārūparāgā mānā uddhaccā avijjāya mānānusayā bhavarāgānusayā avijjānusayā, tadekaṭṭhehi ca kilesehi bahiddhā ca sabbanimittehi cittaṃ vivittaṃ hoti. Ayaṃ cittaviveko.
As explained in Atthakatha, it's something that has an external basis: