Paccekabuddhas in Canon & Commentary

A forum for members who wish to develop a deeper understanding of the Pali Canon and associated Commentaries, which for discussion purposes are both treated as authoritative.

Moderator: Mahavihara moderator

Paccekabuddhas in Canon & Commentary

Postby Dhammanando » Thu Jan 01, 2009 5:38 am

Does anyone want to talk about them?
    ...and this thought arose in the mind of the Blessed One:
    “Who lives without reverence lives miserably.”
    Uruvela Sutta, A.ii.20

    It were endless to dispute upon everything that is disputable.
    — William Penn Some Fruits of Solitude,
User avatar
Dhammanando
 
Posts: 1265
Joined: Tue Dec 30, 2008 10:44 pm
Location: Wat Pa Mieng Khun Pang, Chiang Mai

Re: Paccekabuddhas, anyone?

Postby retrofuturist » Thu Jan 01, 2009 5:48 am

Greetings venerable,

I'd be interested in any references that compare their qualities and attainments to that of a Sammasambuddha.

What differentiates them from fully enlightened Buddhas other than their inability to form their own dispensation?

Metta,
Retro. :)
If you have asked me of the origination of unease, then I shall explain it to you in accordance with my understanding:
Whatever various forms of unease there are in the world, They originate founded in encumbering accumulation. (Pārāyanavagga)


Exalted in mind, just open and clearly aware, the recluse trained in the ways of the sages:
One who is such, calmed and ever mindful, He has no sorrows! -- Udana IV, 7


Dharma Wheel (Mahayana / Vajrayana forum) -- Open flower ~ Open book (blog)
User avatar
retrofuturist
Site Admin
 
Posts: 14626
Joined: Tue Dec 30, 2008 9:52 pm
Location: Melbourne, Australia

Re: Paccekabuddhas, anyone?

Postby Dhammanando » Thu Jan 01, 2009 6:13 am

Hi Retro,

retrofuturist wrote:I'd be interested in any references that compare their qualities and attainments to that of a Sammasambuddha.


The other day I was reading an article about paccekabuddhas in the Thai monks' magazine Warasarn Sirinthornparithat. It was by the lay scholar Manop Nakkanrian and was entitled "The Buddhas who got Forgotten". Before reading it I hadn't quite realized how thoroughly the paccekabuddha and paccekabodhi were treated in the Pali texts (it's mostly in commentaries by Dhammapāla that I've never read). I was thinking of translating the article and posting it in four parts, but wanted to check first if anyone was interested in the subject. As far as I know it hasn't been dealt with much in English language sources (except for Ria Kloppenborg's book, The Paccekabuddha: A Buddhist Ascetic, which I've never had a chance to read).

Best wishes,
Dhammanando Bhikkhu
    ...and this thought arose in the mind of the Blessed One:
    “Who lives without reverence lives miserably.”
    Uruvela Sutta, A.ii.20

    It were endless to dispute upon everything that is disputable.
    — William Penn Some Fruits of Solitude,
User avatar
Dhammanando
 
Posts: 1265
Joined: Tue Dec 30, 2008 10:44 pm
Location: Wat Pa Mieng Khun Pang, Chiang Mai

Re: Paccekabuddhas, anyone?

Postby jcsuperstar » Thu Jan 01, 2009 6:20 am

i'm interested!!
สัพเพ สัตตา สุขีตา โหนตุ

the mountain may be heavy in and of itself, but if you're not trying to carry it it's not heavy to you- Ajaan Suwat
User avatar
jcsuperstar
 
Posts: 1915
Joined: Wed Dec 31, 2008 5:15 am
Location: alaska

Re: Paccekabuddhas, anyone?

Postby Ben » Thu Jan 01, 2009 11:07 am

Thank you Ajahn for offering to translate and transcribe the article.
I am also very interested.
Kind regards

Ben
"One cannot step twice into the same river, nor can one grasp any mortal substance in a stable condition, but it scatters and again gathers; it forms and dissolves, and approaches and departs."

- Hereclitus


Compassionate Hands Foundation (Buddhist aid in Myanmar) • Buddhist Global ReliefUNHCR
Buddhist Life Stories of Australia

e: ben.dhammawheel@gmail.com
User avatar
Ben
Site Admin
 
Posts: 15972
Joined: Wed Dec 31, 2008 12:49 am
Location: Land of the sleeping gods

Re: Paccekabuddhas, anyone?

Postby Cittasanto » Thu Jan 01, 2009 11:49 am

I'm interested! why just recolect the qualities of one buddha, or one type of Buddha?
This offering maybe right, or wrong, but it is one, the other, both, or neither!
With Metta
Upāsaka Cittasanto
Blog, - Some Suttas Translated, Ajahn Chah.
"Others will misconstrue reality due to their personal perspectives, doggedly holding onto and not easily discarding them; We shall not misconstrue reality due to our own personal perspectives, nor doggedly holding onto them, but will discard them easily. This effacement shall be done."
User avatar
Cittasanto
 
Posts: 5688
Joined: Tue Dec 30, 2008 10:31 pm
Location: Ellan Vannin

Re: Paccekabuddhas, anyone?

Postby Will » Thu Jan 01, 2009 7:58 pm

Absolutely interested. Does he contrast the Mahayana view of same or are they pretty much the same?
This noble eightfold path is the ancient path traveled by all the Buddhas of eons past. Nagara Sutta
User avatar
Will
 
Posts: 384
Joined: Tue Dec 30, 2008 11:26 pm

Re: Paccekabuddhas, anyone?

Postby Dhammanando » Thu Jan 01, 2009 8:26 pm

Hi Will,

Will wrote:Absolutely interested. Does he contrast the Mahayana view of same or are they pretty much the same?


I'll probably have Part 1 read tomorrow or the day after. No, he presents only what is given in Pali sources.

Best wishes,
Dhammanando Bhikkhu
    ...and this thought arose in the mind of the Blessed One:
    “Who lives without reverence lives miserably.”
    Uruvela Sutta, A.ii.20

    It were endless to dispute upon everything that is disputable.
    — William Penn Some Fruits of Solitude,
User avatar
Dhammanando
 
Posts: 1265
Joined: Tue Dec 30, 2008 10:44 pm
Location: Wat Pa Mieng Khun Pang, Chiang Mai

Re: Paccekabuddhas, anyone?

Postby zamis » Sat Jan 03, 2009 7:55 pm

Dhammanando wrote:Does anyone want to talk about them?


Though I wouldn't be able to contribute to a discussion as others could, I've often looked for information on them and haven't found much. Very grateful for your offer Bhante.
"You're almost at the end of your lease in this burning house and yet you continue latching onto it as your self. It tricks you into feeling fear and love, and when you fall for it, what path will you practice? " Upasika Kee Nanayon

http://www.bhikkhuni.net
zamis
 
Posts: 34
Joined: Sat Jan 03, 2009 12:18 pm
Location: Tennessee

Re: Paccekabuddhas, anyone?

Postby Dhammanando » Sun Jan 04, 2009 12:07 am

I haven't yet had much time to work on the translation of the Thai article, but I hope to have the first part ready soon. In the meantime...

Canonical sources relating to paccekabuddhas – 1. The Isigili Sutta

    Isigili Sutta: The Gullet of the Seers, MN. 116


    THUS HAVE I HEARD. [*1]

    On one occasion the Blessed One was living at Rājagaha, at Isigili, the Gullet of the Seers. There he addressed the bhikkhus thus: “Bhikkhus.” – “Venerable sir,” they replied. The Blessed One said this:

    “You see, bhikkhus, do you not, that mountain Vebhāra?”

    “Yes, venerable sir.”

    “There used to be another name, another designation, for that mountain Vebhāra. [*2] You see, bhikkhus, do you not, that mountain Paṇḍava?” – “Yes, venerable sir.”

    “There used to be another name, another designation, for that mountain Paṇḍava. You see, bhikkhus, do you not, that mountain Vepulla?” – “Yes, venerable sir.”

    “There used to be another name, another designation, for that mountain Vepulla. You see, bhikkhus, do you not, that mountain Gijjhakūṭa, the Vulture Peak?” – “Yes, venerable sir.”

    “There used to be another name, another designation, for that mountain Gijjhakūṭa, the Vulture Peak. You see, bhikkhus, do you not, that mountain Isigili, the Gullet of the Seers?” – “Yes, venerable sir.”

    “There used to be this same name, this same designation, for this mountain Isigili, the Gullet of the Seers. For in former times five hundred paccekabuddhas [*3] dwelt long on this mountain, the Gullet of the Seers. They were seen entering into this hill; once gone in, they were no longer seen. People who saw this said: ‘This mountain swallows up these seers.’ [*4] And so it was that this came to be named ‘The Gullet of the Seers.’ I shall tell you, bhikkhus, the names of the paccekabuddhas, I shall relate to you the names of the paccekabuddhas, I shall teach you the names of the paccekabuddhas. Listen and attend closely to what I shall say.” – “Yes, venerable sir,” the bhikkhus replied. The Blessed One said this:

    “Bhikkhus, the paccekabuddha Ariṭṭha dwelt long on this mountain Isigili.
    “The paccekabuddha Upariṭṭha dwelt long on this mountain Isigili.
    “The paccekabuddha Tagarasikhī [*5] dwelt long on this mountain Isigili.
    “The paccekabuddha Yasassī dwelt long on this mountain Isigili.
    “The paccekabuddha Sudassana dwelt long on this mountain Isigili.
    “The paccekabuddha Piyadassī dwelt long on this mountain Isigili.
    “The paccekabuddha Gandhāra dwelt long on this mountain Isigili.
    “The paccekabuddha Piṇḍola dwelt long on this mountain Isigili.
    “The paccekabuddha Upāsabha dwelt long on this mountain Isigili.
    “The paccekabuddha Nīta dwelt long on this mountain Isigili.
    “The paccekabuddha Tatha dwelt long on this mountain Isigili.
    “The paccekabuddha Sutavā dwelt long on this mountain Isigili.
    “The paccekabuddha Bhāvitatta dwelt long on this mountain Isigili.


    “These saintly beings, desireless, rid of suffering,
    Who each achieved awakening by himself –
    Hear me relate the names of these, the greatest
    Of men, who have plucked out the dart [of pain].

    “Ariṭṭha, Upariṭṭha, Tagarasikhī, Yasassī,
    Sudassana, and Piyadassī the enlightened,
    Gandhāra, Piṇḍola, Upāsabha as well,
    Nīta, Tatha, Sutavā, Bhāvitatta.

    “Sumbha, Subha, Methula, and Aṭṭhama, [*6]
    Then Assumegha, Anīgha, Sudāṭha –
    And Hiṅgū, and Hiṅga, the greatly powerful,
    Paccekabuddhas no more led to being.

    “Two sages named Jāli, and Aṭṭhaka,
    Then Kosalla the enlightened, then Subāhu,
    Upanemi, and Nemi, and Santacitta
    Right and true, immaculate and wise.

    “Kāḷa, Upakāḷa, Vijita, and Jita;
    Aṅga, and Paṅga, and Guttijita too;
    Passī conquered attachment, the root of suffering;
    Aparājita conquered Mara’s power.

    “Satthā, Pavattā, Sarabhaṅga, Lomahaṃsa,
    Uccaṅgamāya, Asita, Anāsava,
    Manomaya, and Bandhumā the free from pride,
    Tadādhimutta stainless and resplendent.

    “Ketumbharāga, Mātaṅga, and Ariya,
    Then Accuta, Accutagāma, Byāmaka, Sumaṅgala,
    Dabbila, Supatiṭṭhita, Asayha, Khemābhirata, and Sorata.

    “Durannaya, Saṅgha, and then Ujjaya;
    Another sage, Sayha, of noble endeavour.
    And twelve between – Ānandas, Nandas, and Upanandas –
    And Bhāradvāja bearing his last body.

    “Then Bodhi, Mahānāma the supreme,
    Dvārabhāja with fair-crested mane;
    Tissa and Upatissa not bound to being;
    Upasīdarī, and Sīdarī, free from craving.

    “Enlightened was Maṅgala, free from lust;
    Usabha cut the net, the root of suffering.
    Upanīta attained the state of peace,
    Purified, excellent, truly named.

    “Jeta, Jayanta, Paduma, and Uppala,
    Padumuttara, Rakkhita, and Pabbata,
    Mānatthaddha glorious, Vītarāga,
    And Kaṇha enlightened with mind released.

    “These and also other great and mighty
    Paccekabuddhas no more led to being –
    Honour these sages who, transcending craving,
    Have attained final Nibbana, past all measure.”

    _________________________

    Bhikkhu Bodhi's Notes

    1. In Sri Lanka this sutta is regularly recited as a protective discourse and is included in the medieval compilation, Mahā Pirit Pota, “The Great Book of Protection.”

    2. This and the following are mountains surrounding Rājagaha.

    3. A paccekabuddha is one who attains enlightenment and liberation on his own, without relying on the Dhamma taught by the Buddha, but is not capable of teaching the Dhamma to others and establishing the Dispensation. Paccekabuddhas arise only at a time when no Dispensation of a Buddha exists in the world. For a fuller study of the subject see Ria Kloppenborg, The Paccekabuddha: A Buddhist Ascetic.

    4. Ayaṃ pabbato ime isī gilati: a word play is involved here.

    5. Tagarasikhī is referred to at Ud 5:4/50 and SN 3:20/i.92.

    6. Ñāṇamoli remarks in Ms that without the aid of the commentary it is extremely difficult to distinguish the proper names of the paccekabuddhas from their descriptive epithets.

    (Ñāṇamoli & Bodhi trans.)
    ...and this thought arose in the mind of the Blessed One:
    “Who lives without reverence lives miserably.”
    Uruvela Sutta, A.ii.20

    It were endless to dispute upon everything that is disputable.
    — William Penn Some Fruits of Solitude,
User avatar
Dhammanando
 
Posts: 1265
Joined: Tue Dec 30, 2008 10:44 pm
Location: Wat Pa Mieng Khun Pang, Chiang Mai

Re: Paccekabuddhas, anyone?

Postby Dhammanando » Sun Jan 04, 2009 6:52 am

Canonical sources relating to paccekabuddhas – 2. Khaggavisāṇa Sutta I

[The text in bold is K.R. Norman’s rather literal prose translation from “The Group of Discourses”. The parts within square brackets have alternative translations by I.B. Horner and Walpola Rāhula (given in blue text after each verse), who follow the commentarial understanding more closely than Norman. The text in italic is E.M. Hare's much freer verse translation from “Woven Cadences”. This Sutta, with its uncompromising ascesis, is traditionally viewed in the Theravada as a collection of sayings by paccekabuddhas. Regarding verse 41, I think the word "serve" is a typo for "sever", but this is how it is printed in both the original OUP edition of “Woven Cadences” and in Edward Conze's anthology, “Buddhist Scriptures”. And "loving" in verse 47 is most definitely a typo for "living".]


    Khaggavisāṇa Sutta: The Rhinoceros Horn, Sn. 35-75

      35.
      sabbesu bhūtesu nidhāya daṇḍaṃ,
      aviheṭhayaṃ aññatarampi tesaṃ.
      na puttamiccheyya kuto sahāyaṃ,
      eko care khaggavisāṇakappo.

    Laying aside violence in respect of all beings, not harming even one of them, one should not wish for a son, let alone a companion. One should wander solitary as a rhinoceros horn.

    Put by the rod for all that lives,
    Nor harm thou any one thereof;
    Long not for son – how then for friend?
    Fare lonely as rhinoceros.


      36.
      saṃsaggajātassa bhavanti snehā,
      snehanvayaṃ dukkhamidaṃ pahoti.
      ādīnavaṃ snehajaṃ pekkhamāno,
      eko care khaggavisāṇakappo.

    Affection comes into being for one who has associations; following on affection, this misery arises. Seeing the peril which is born from affection, one should wander solitary as a rhinoceros horn.

    Love cometh from companionship;
    In wake of love upsurges ill;
    Seeing the bane that comes of love,
    Fare lonely as rhinoceros.


      37.
      mitte suhajje anukampamāno,
      hāpeti atthaṃ paṭibaddhacitto.
      etaṃ bhayaṃ santhave pekkhamāno,
      eko care khaggavisāṇakappo.

    Sympathising with friends and companions [one misses one’s goal, being shackled in mind. Seeing the danger in acquaintance (with friends)], one should wander solitary as a rhinoceros horn.

    [one loses one’s goal, being attached in mind. Seeing this fear in attachment to friends]

    In ruth for all his bosom-friends,
    A man, heart-chained, neglects the goal:
    Seeing this fear in fellowship,
    Fare lonely as rhinoceros.


      38.
      vaṃso visālova yathā visatto,
      puttesu dāresu ca yā apekkhā.
      vaṃsākaḷīrova sajjamāno,
      eko care khaggavisāṇakappo.

    [The consideration which (exists) for sons and wives is like a very wide-spreading bamboo tree entangled (with others. Like a (young) bamboo shoot not caught up (with others)], one should wander solitary as a rhinoceros horn.

    [And whatever the expectation with regard to children and wives, it is like a tall bamboo which is tangled up (with others). Like a young bamboo shoot not clinging (to others)]

    Tangled as crowding bamboo boughs
    Is fond regard for sons and wife:
    As the tall tops are tangle-free,
    Fare lonely as rhinoceros.


      39.
      migo araññamhi yathā abaddho,
      yenicchakaṃ gacchati gocarāya.
      viññū naro seritaṃ pekkhamāno,
      eko care khaggavisāṇakappo.

    As a deer which is not tied up goes wherever it wishes in the forest for pasture, an understanding man, having regard for his independence, should wander solitary as a rhinoceros horn.

    The deer untethered roams the wild
    Whithersoe’er it lists for food:
    Seeing the liberty, wise man,
    Fare lonely as rhinoceros.


      40.
      āmantanā hoti sahāyamajjhe,
      vāse ṭhāne gamane cārikāya.
      anabhijjhitaṃ seritaṃ pekkhamāno,
      eko care khaggavisāṇakappo.

    In the midst of companions, whether one is resting, standing, going or wandering, there are requests (from others). Having regard for the independence (which is) not coveted (by others), one should wander solitary as a rhinoceros horn.

    With friends one is at beck and call,
    At home, abroad, on tour for alms:
    Seeing the liberty none want,
    Fare lonely as rhinoceros.


      41.
      khiḍḍā ratī hoti sahāyamajjhe,
      puttesu ca vipulaṃ hoti pemaṃ.
      piyavippayogaṃ vijigucchamāno,
      eko care khaggavisāṇakappo.

    In the midst of companions there are sport, enjoyment, and great love for sons (Although) loathing separation from what is dear, one should wander solitary as a rhinoceros horn.

    With friends there’s mirth and merriment,
    And love for sons is very great:
    Full loath to serve the ties of love,
    Fare lonely as rhinoceros.


      42.
      cātuddiso appaṭigho ca hoti,
      santussamāno itarītarena.
      parissayānaṃ sahitā achambhī,
      eko care khaggavisāṇakappo.

    One is a man of the four quarters and not hostile, being pleased with whatever comes one’s way. A fearless bearer of dangers, one should wander solitary as a rhinoceros horn.

    Free everywhere, at odds with none,
    And well content with this and that:
    Enduring dangers undismayed,
    Fare lonely as rhinoceros.


      43.
      dussaṅgahā pabbajitāpi eke,
      atho gahaṭṭhā gharamāvasantā.
      appossukko paraputtesu hutvā,
      eko care khaggavisāṇakappo.

    [Even some wanderers are not kindly disposed], and also (some) householders dwelling in a house. Having little concern for the children of others, one should wander solitary as a rhinoceros horn.

    [Even some who have gone forth are hard to consort with (or: are unworthy of the community)]

    Some home-forsakers ill consort,
    As householders who live at home:
    Indifferent to other folk,
    Fare lonely as rhinoceros.


      44.
      oropayitvā gihivyañjanāni,
      sañchinnapatto yathā koviḷāro.
      chetvāna vīro gihibandhanāni,
      eko care khaggavisāṇakappo.

    Having removed the marks of a householder, like a Koviḷāra tree whose leaves have fallen, a hero, having cut the householder’s bonds, one should wander solitary as a rhinoceros horn.

    Casting aside the household gear,
    As sheds the coral tree its leaves,
    With home-ties cut and vigorous,
    Fare lonely as rhinoceros.


      45.
      sace labhetha nipakaṃ sahāyaṃ,
      saddhiṃ caraṃ sādhuvihāridhīraṃ.
      abhibhuyya sabbāni parissayāni,
      careyya tenattamano satīmā.

    If one can obtain a zealous companion, an associate of good disposition, (who is) resolute, overcoming all [dangers] one should wander with him, with elevated mind, mindful.

    [obstacles (or: difficulties)]

    If one find friend with whom to fare,
    Rapt in the well-abiding, apt,
    Surmounting dangers one and all,
    With joy fare with him mindfully.


      46.
      no ce labhetha nipakaṃ sahāyaṃ,
      saddhiṃ caraṃ sādhuvihāridhīraṃ.
      rājāva raṭṭhaṃ vijitaṃ pahāya,
      eko care mātaṅgaraññeva nāgo.

    If one cannot obtain a zealous companion, an associate of good disposition, (who is) resolute, (then) like a king quitting the kingdom (which he has) conquered, one should wander solitary as an elephant in the forest.

    Finding none apt with whom to fare,
    None in the well-abiding rapt,
    As rajah quits the conquered realm,
    Fare lonely as rhinoceros.


      47.
      addhā pasaṃsāma sahāyasampadaṃ,
      seṭṭhā samā sevitabbā sahāyā.
      ete aladdhā anavajjabhojī,
      eko care khaggavisāṇakappo.

Assuredly let us praise the good fortune of (having) a companion; [friends better (than oneself) or equal (to oneself) are to be associated with. If one does not obtain these, (then) enjoying (only) blameless things], one should wander solitary as a rhinoceros horn.

[Higher or equal companions should be associated with. Not having obtained these, subsisting blamelessly]

Surely we praise accomplished friends;
Choose thou the best or equal friends:
Not finding these and loving right,
Fare lonely as rhinoceros.


.
    ...and this thought arose in the mind of the Blessed One:
    “Who lives without reverence lives miserably.”
    Uruvela Sutta, A.ii.20

    It were endless to dispute upon everything that is disputable.
    — William Penn Some Fruits of Solitude,
User avatar
Dhammanando
 
Posts: 1265
Joined: Tue Dec 30, 2008 10:44 pm
Location: Wat Pa Mieng Khun Pang, Chiang Mai

Re: Paccekabuddhas, anyone?

Postby Dhammanando » Sun Jan 04, 2009 6:55 am

Khaggavisāṇa Sutta II

    48.
    disvā suvaṇṇassa pabhassarāni,
    kammāraputtena suniṭṭhitāni.
    saṅghaṭṭamānāni duve bhujasmiṃ,
    eko care khaggavisāṇakappo.

Seeing shining (bracelets) of gold, well-made by a smith, clashing together (when) two are on (one) arm, one should wander solitary as a rhinoceros horn.

Seeing how glittering bangles o’ gold,
Tho’ finely wrought by goldsmith’s art,
Jangle when twain on arm are set,
Fare lonely as rhinoceros.


    49.
    evaṃ dutiyena sahā mamassa,
    vācābhilāpo abhisajjanā vā.
    etaṃ bhayaṃ āyatiṃ pekkhamāno,
    eko care khaggavisāṇakappo.

[‘In the same way, with a companion there would be objectionable talk or abuse for me.’] Seeing this danger for the future], one should wander solitary as a rhinoceros horn.

[‘Thus there would be for me talking with and affectionate feeling for the second person.’ Regarding this as a danger for the future]

Bethink thee, “Thus with others joined,
What wordy talks, what scolds for me!”
Seeing this fear lies in the way,
Fare lonely as rhinoceros.


    50.
    kāmā hi citrā madhurā manoramā,
    virūparūpena mathenti cittaṃ.
    ādīnavaṃ kāmaguṇesu disvā,
    eko care khaggavisāṇakappo.

For sensual pleasures, variegated, sweet (and) delightful, disturb the mind with their manifold form. Seeing peril in [the strands of sensual pleasure], one should wander solitary as a rhinoceros horn.

[in sensual pleasures]

Gay pleasures, honeyed, rapturous,
In divers forms churn up the mind:
Seeing the bane of pleasure’s brood,
Fare lonely as rhinoceros.


    51.
    ītī ca gaṇḍo ca upaddavo ca,
    rogo ca sallañca bhayañca metaṃ.
    etaṃ bhayaṃ kāmaguṇesu disvā,
    eko care khaggavisāṇakappo.

‘This for me is a calamity, and a tumour, and a misfortune, and a disease, and a barb, and a danger.’ Seeing this danger in [the strands of sense pleasure], one should wander solitary as a rhinoceros horn.

[in sensual pleasures]

“They are a plague, a blain, a sore,
A barb, a fear, disease for me!”
Seeing this fear in pleasure’s brood,
Fare lonely as rhinoceros.


    52.
    sītañca uṇhañca khudaṃ pipāsaṃ,
    vātātape ḍaṃsasiriṃsape ca.
    sabbānipetāni abhisambhavitvā,
    eko care khaggavisāṇakappo.

Cold and heat, hunger (and) thirst, wind and the heat (of the sun), gadflies and snakes, having endured all these, one should wander solitary as a rhinoceros horn.

The heat and cold, and hunger, thirst,
Wind, sun-beat, string of gadfly, snake:
Surmounting one and all of these,
Fare lonely as rhinoceros.


    53.
    nāgova yūthāni vivajjayitvā,
    sañjātakhandho padumī uḷāro.
    yathābhirantaṃ viharaṃ araññe,
    eko care khaggavisāṇakappo.

As an elephant with massive shoulders, [spotted], noble, may leave the herds and live as it pleases in the forest, one should wander solitary as a rhinoceros horn.

[of the Paduma tribe]

As large and full-grown elephant,
Shapely as lotus, leaves the herd
Whenas he lists for forest haunts,
Fare lonely as rhinoceros.


    54.
    aṭṭhānataṃ saṅgaṇikāratassa,
    yaṃ phassaye sāmayikaṃ vimuttiṃ.
    ādiccabandhussa vaco nisamma,
    eko care khaggavisāṇakappo.

It is an impossibility for one who delights in company to obtain (even) temporary release. Having heard the voice of the sun’s kinsman, one should wander solitary as a rhinoceros horn.

’Tis not for him who loves the crowd
To reach to temporal release:
Word of Sun’s kinsman heeding right,
Fare lonely as rhinoceros.


    55.
    diṭṭhīvisūkāni upātivatto,
    patto niyāmaṃ paṭiladdhamaggo.
    uppannañāṇomhi anaññaneyyo,
    eko care khaggavisāṇakappo.

Gone beyond the contortions of wrong view, arrived at [the fixed course (to salvation)], having gained the way, (thinking) ‘I have knowledge arisen (in me); I am not to be led by others,’ one should wander solitary as a rhinoceros horn.

[certitude (of perfection)]

Leaving the vanities of view,
Right method won, the way obtained:
“I know! No other is my guide!”
Fare lonely as rhinoceros.


    56.
    nillolupo nikkuho nippipāso,
    nimmakkho niddhantakasāvamoho.
    nirāsayo sabbaloke bhavitvā,
    eko care khaggavisāṇakappo.

Having become without covetousness, without deceit, without thirst, without hypocrisy, with delusion and faults blown away, without any inclination (to evil) in the whole world, one should wander solitary as a rhinoceros horn.

Gone greed, gone guile, gone thirst, gone grudge,
And winnowed all delusions, faults,
Wantless in all the world become.
Fare lonely as rhinoceros.


    57.
    pāpaṃ sahāyaṃ parivajjayetha,
    anatthadassiṃ visame niviṭṭhaṃ.
    sayaṃ na seve pasutaṃ pamattaṃ,
    eko care khaggavisāṇakappo.

One should avoid an evil companion, [who does not see the goal, (who has) entered upon bad conduct. One should not oneself associate with one who is intent (upon wrong views, and is) negligent.] One should wander solitary as a rhinoceros horn.

[who shows what is non-beneficial, entered upon bad conduct. One should not oneself associate with one who is (thus) addicted and negligent]

Shun thou the evil friend who sees
No goal, convinced in crooked ways;
Serve not at will the wanton one,
Fare lonely as rhinoceros.


    58.
    bahussutaṃ dhammadharaṃ bhajetha,
    mittaṃ uḷāraṃ paṭibhānavantaṃ.
    aññāya atthāni vineyya kaṅkhaṃ,
    eko care khaggavisāṇakappo.

One should cultivate one of great learning, expert in the doctrine, a noble friend possessed of intelligence. [Knowing one’s goals, having dispelled doubt], one should wander solitary as a rhinoceros horn.

[Knowing beneficial things, one should overcome doubt]

Seek for thy friend the listener,
Dharma-endued, lucid and great;
Knowing the needs, expelling doubt,
Fare lonely as rhinoceros.


    59.
    khiḍḍaṃ ratiṃ kāmasukhañca loke,
    analaṅkaritvā anapekkhamāno.
    vibhūsanaṭṭhānā virato saccavādī,
    eko care khaggavisāṇakappo.

Not finding satisfaction in sport and enjoyment, nor in the happiness (which comes) from sensual pleasures in the world, (and) paying no attention (to them), abstaining from adornment, speaking the truth, one should wander solitary as a rhinoceros horn.

Play, pleasures, mirth and worldly joys,
Be done with these and heed them not;
Aloof from pomp and speaking truth,
Fare lonely as rhinoceros.


.
    ...and this thought arose in the mind of the Blessed One:
    “Who lives without reverence lives miserably.”
    Uruvela Sutta, A.ii.20

    It were endless to dispute upon everything that is disputable.
    — William Penn Some Fruits of Solitude,
User avatar
Dhammanando
 
Posts: 1265
Joined: Tue Dec 30, 2008 10:44 pm
Location: Wat Pa Mieng Khun Pang, Chiang Mai

Re: Paccekabuddhas, anyone?

Postby Dhammanando » Sun Jan 04, 2009 6:57 am

Khaggavisāṇa Sutta III

    60.
    puttañca dāraṃ pitarañca mātaraṃ,
    dhanāni dhaññāni ca bandhavāni.
    hitvāna kāmāni yathodhikāni,
    eko care khaggavisāṇakappo.

Leaving behind son and wife, and father and mother, and wealth and grain, and relatives, and sensual pleasures to the full extent, one should wander solitary as a rhinoceros horn.

Son, wife and father, mother, wealth,
The things wealth brings, the ties of kin:
Leaving these pleasures one and all,
Fare lonely as rhinoceros.


    61.
    saṅgo eso parittamettha sokhyaṃ,
    appassādo dukkhamettha bhiyyo.
    gaḷo eso iti ñatvā mutīmā,
    eko care khaggavisāṇakappo.

‘This is an attachment here; here there is little happiness, (and) little satisfaction; here there is very much misery; this is a hook.’ Knowing this, a thoughtful man should wander solitary as a rhinoceros horn.

They are but bonds, and brief their joys,
And few their sweets, and more their ills,
Hooks in the throat! – this knowing, sure,
Fare lonely as rhinoceros.


    62.
    sandālayitvāna saṃyojanāni,
    jālaṃva bhetvā salilambucārī.
    aggīva daḍḍhaṃ anivattamāno,
    eko care khaggavisāṇakappo.

Having torn one’s fetters asunder, like a fish breaking a net in the water, not returning, like a fire (not going back) to what is (already) burned, one should wander solitary as a rhinoceros horn.

Snap thou the fetters as the snare
By river denizen is broke:
As fire to waste comes back no more,
Fare lonely as rhinoceros.


    63.
    okkhittacakkhū na ca pādalolo,
    guttindriyo rakkhitamānasāno.
    anavassuto apariḍayhamāno,
    eko care khaggavisāṇakappo.

With downcast eyes and not foot-loose, with sense-faculties guarded, with mind protected, [not overflowing (with defilement)], not burning, one should wander solitary as a rhinoceros horn.

[without lust]

With downcast eyes, not loitering,
With guarded senses, warded thoughts,
With mind that festers not, nor burns,
Fare lonely as rhinoceros.


    64.
    ohārayitvā gihibyañjanāni,
    sañchinnapatto yathā pārichatto.
    kāsāyavattho abhinikkhamitvā,
    eko care khaggavisāṇakappo.

Having discarded the marks of a householder, like a coral tree whose leaves have fallen, having gone out (from the house) wearing the saffron robe, one should wander solitary as a rhinoceros horn.

Shed thou householders’ finery,
As coral tree its leaves in fall:
And going forth in yellow clad,
Fare lonely as rhinoceros.


    65.
    rasesu gedhaṃ akaraṃ alolo,
    anaññaposī sapadānacārī.
    kule kule appaṭibaddhacitto,
    eko care khaggavisāṇakappo.

[Showing no greed for flavours, not wanton, not supporting others, going on an uninterrupted begging round, not shackled in mind to this family or that], one should wander solitary as a rhinoceros horn.

[Not greedy for flavours, not distracted by desires, without supporting others, walking for alms (from home to home) without exception, unattached in mind to this or that family]

Crave not for tastes, but free of greed,
Moving with measured step from house
To house, support of none, none’s thrall,
Fare lonely as rhinoceros.


    66.
    pahāya pañcāvaraṇāni cetaso,
    upakkilese byapanujja sabbe.
    anissito chetva sinehadosaṃ,
    eko care khaggavisāṇakappo.

Having left behind the five hindrances of the mind, having thrust away all defilements, not dependent, having cut off [affection and hate], one should wander solitary as a rhinoceros horn.

[the blemish of affection]

Rid of the mind’s five obstacles,
Void of all stains whate’er, thy trust
In none, with love and hate cut out,
Fare lonely as rhinoceros.


    67.
    vipiṭṭhikatvāna sukhaṃ dukhañca,
    pubbeva ca somanassadomanassaṃ.
    laddhānupekkhaṃ samathaṃ visuddhaṃ,
    eko care khaggavisāṇakappo.

Having put happiness and misery behind oneself, [and joy and dejection already, having gained equanimity (which is) purified calmness], one should wander solitary as a rhinoceros horn.

[and even joy or sorrow already, having gained the calm that is purified equanimity]

And turn thy back on joys and pains,
Delights and sorrows known of old;
And gaining poise and calm, and cleansed,
Fare lonely as rhinoceros.


    68.
    āraddhavīriyo paramatthapattiyā,
    alīnacitto akusītavutti.
    daḷhanikkamo thāmabalūpapanno,
    eko care khaggavisāṇakappo.

Resolute for the attainment of the supreme goal, with intrepid mind, [not indolent, of firm exertion, furnished with strength and power], one should wander solitary as a rhinoceros horn.

[alert in his (physical) activities, of firm exertion, furnished with (physical) strength and (mental) power]

Astir to win the yondmost goal,
Not lax in thought, no sloth in ways,
Strong in the onset, steadfast, firm.
Fare lonely as rhinoceros.


    69.
    paṭisallānaṃ jhānamariñcamāno,
    dhammesu niccaṃ anudhammacārī.
    ādīnavaṃ sammasitā bhavesu,
    eko care khaggavisāṇakappo.

Not giving up seclusion (and) meditation, constantly [living in accordance with the doctrine in the world of phenomena], understanding the peril (which is) in existences, one should wander solitary as a rhinoceros horn.

[following the teaching]

Neglect thou not to muse apart,
’Mid things by Dharma faring aye,
Alive to all becomings’ bane,
Fare lonely as rhinoceros.


    70.
    taṇhakkhayaṃ patthayamappamatto,
    aneḷamūgo sutavā satīmā.
    saṅkhātadhammo niyato padhānavā,
    eko care khaggavisāṇakappo.

Desiring the destruction of craving, not negligent, not foolish, learned, possessing mindfulness, [having considered the doctrine, restrained], energetic, one should wander solitary as a rhinoceros horn.

[having grasped the doctrine, certain (of perfection)]

Earnest, resolved for craving’s end,
Listener, alert, not hesitant,
Striver, assured, with Dharma summed,
Fare lonely as rhinoceros.


    71.
    sīhova saddesu asantasanto,
    vātova jālamhi asajjamāno.
    padumaṃva toyena alippamāno,
    eko care khaggavisāṇakappo.

Not trembling, as a lion (does not tremble) at sounds, not caught up (with others), as the wind (is not caught up) in a net, not defiled (by passion), as a lotus (is not defiled) by water, one should wander solitary as a rhinoceros horn.

Like lion fearful not of sounds,
Like wind not caught within a net,
Like lotus not by water soiled,
Fare lonely as rhinoceros.


    72.
    sīho yathā dāṭhabalī pasayha,
    rājā migānaṃ abhibhuyya cārī.
    sevetha pantāni senāsanāni,
    eko care khaggavisāṇakappo.

Wandering victorious, having overcome like a strong-toothed lion, the king of beasts, one should resort to secluded lodgings, one should wander solitary as a rhinoceros horn.

As lion, mighty-jawed and king
Of beasts, fares conquering, so thou;
Taking thy bed and seat remote,
Fare lonely as rhinoceros.


    73.
    mettaṃ upekkhaṃ karuṇaṃ vimuttiṃ,
    āsevamāno muditañca kāle.
    sabbena lokena avirujjhamāno,
    eko care khaggavisāṇakappo.

Cultivating at the right time loving-kindness, equanimity, [pity], release, and (sympathetic) joy, [unimpeded by the whole world], one should wander solitary as a rhinoceros horn.

[compassion]
[not clashing with all the world]

Poise, amity, ruth, and release
Pursue, and timely sympathy;
At odds with none in all the world,
Fare lonely as rhinoceros.


    74.
    rāgañca dosañca pahāya mohaṃ,
    sandālayitvāna saṃyojanāni.
    asantasaṃ jīvitasaṅkhayamhi,
    eko care khaggavisāṇakappo.

Leaving behind passion, hatred, and delusion, having torn the fetters apart, not trembling at (the time of) the complete destruction of life, one should wander solitary as a rhinoceros horn.

And rid of passion, error, hate,
The fetters having snapped in twain,
Fearless whenas life ebbs away,
Fare lonely as rhinoceros.


    75.
    bhajanti sevanti ca kāraṇatthā,
    nikkāraṇā dullabhā ajja mittā.
    attaṭṭhapaññā asucī manussā,
    eko care khaggavisāṇakappo.

(People) associate with and resort to (others) for some motive; nowadays friends without a motive are hard to find. Wise as to their own advantage, men are impure. One should wander solitary as a rhinoceros horn.

Folk serve and follow with an aim:
Friends who seek naught are scarce to-day:
Men, wise in selfish aims, are foul:
Fare lonely as rhinoceros!


__________________________________


Any questions or comments about this sutta, before we proceed to Manop's article?

Best wishes,
Dhammanando Bhikkhu
    ...and this thought arose in the mind of the Blessed One:
    “Who lives without reverence lives miserably.”
    Uruvela Sutta, A.ii.20

    It were endless to dispute upon everything that is disputable.
    — William Penn Some Fruits of Solitude,
User avatar
Dhammanando
 
Posts: 1265
Joined: Tue Dec 30, 2008 10:44 pm
Location: Wat Pa Mieng Khun Pang, Chiang Mai

Re: Paccekabuddhas in Canon & Commentary

Postby BubbaBuddhist » Sun Jan 04, 2009 4:31 pm

Now and then in the Suttas you run across mention of a certain Paccekabuddha. It would be interesting to make a compilation of their exploits.

Bb
Author of Redneck Buddhism: or Will You Reincarnate as Your Own Cousin?
User avatar
BubbaBuddhist
 
Posts: 640
Joined: Sat Jan 03, 2009 5:55 am
Location: Knoxville, Tennessee

Re: Paccekabuddhas in Canon & Commentary

Postby Will » Sun Jan 04, 2009 6:43 pm

In verse 41 and some others the word "companions" is used - "In the midst of companions there are sport, enjoyment, and great love for sons ..." It sounds like, in some cases, "family" or "wife" or "marriage" is meant, more than buddies or associates?
This noble eightfold path is the ancient path traveled by all the Buddhas of eons past. Nagara Sutta
User avatar
Will
 
Posts: 384
Joined: Tue Dec 30, 2008 11:26 pm

Re: Paccekabuddhas in Canon & Commentary

Postby Cittasanto » Sun Jan 04, 2009 7:41 pm

Hi Will

Will wrote:In verse 41 and some others the word "companions" is used - "In the midst of companions there are sport, enjoyment, and great love for sons ..." It sounds like, in some cases, "family" or "wife" or "marriage" is meant, more than buddies or associates?


Are we all not Brothers and sisters in Truth, in Reality?
This offering maybe right, or wrong, but it is one, the other, both, or neither!
With Metta
Upāsaka Cittasanto
Blog, - Some Suttas Translated, Ajahn Chah.
"Others will misconstrue reality due to their personal perspectives, doggedly holding onto and not easily discarding them; We shall not misconstrue reality due to our own personal perspectives, nor doggedly holding onto them, but will discard them easily. This effacement shall be done."
User avatar
Cittasanto
 
Posts: 5688
Joined: Tue Dec 30, 2008 10:31 pm
Location: Ellan Vannin

Re: Paccekabuddhas in Canon & Commentary

Postby Jason » Mon Jan 05, 2009 3:11 am

Excellent idea for a thread. Incidentally, this reminds me of something that I read a while ago in A Buddhist Philosophy of Religion by Bhikkhu Nanajivako, which suggests that there is a possibility this particular poem was modelled after a Jaina one, or vice versa. I no longer have the book (although I did find this related tid-bit online), but I know that in the Kalpa Sutra, an important Jaina text detailing the lives of the Jaina founders, it states that Mahavira was "single and alone like the horn of a rhinoceros" (261).
"Sabbe dhamma nalam abhinivesaya" (AN 7.58).

leaves in the hand (Buddhist-related blog)
leaves in the forest (non-Buddhist related blog)
User avatar
Jason
 
Posts: 465
Joined: Sun Jan 04, 2009 1:09 am
Location: Earth

Re: Paccekabuddhas in Canon & Commentary

Postby Dhammanando » Mon Jan 05, 2009 5:29 am

Hi Will,

Will wrote:In verse 41 and some others the word "companions" is used - "In the midst of companions there are sport, enjoyment, and great love for sons ..." It sounds like, in some cases, "family" or "wife" or "marriage" is meant, more than buddies or associates?


The Pali word sahāya doesn't make any distinction between relatives and non-relatives. It just means anyone you're with and with whom you feel comfortable.


From the Cullaniddesa:

    Companion: with whichever persons one is comfortable coming, comfortable going, comfortable both coming and going, comfortable standing, comfortable sitting, comfortable lying down, comfortable talking to, comfortable talking with, comfortable greeting, and comfortable exchanging greetings, these persons are called companions. (Khaggavisanasuttaniddesa 121)

Best wishes,
Dhammanando Bhikkhu
    ...and this thought arose in the mind of the Blessed One:
    “Who lives without reverence lives miserably.”
    Uruvela Sutta, A.ii.20

    It were endless to dispute upon everything that is disputable.
    — William Penn Some Fruits of Solitude,
User avatar
Dhammanando
 
Posts: 1265
Joined: Tue Dec 30, 2008 10:44 pm
Location: Wat Pa Mieng Khun Pang, Chiang Mai

Re: Paccekabuddhas in Canon & Commentary

Postby Ben » Mon Jan 05, 2009 7:49 am

Thank you Ajahn for providing the alternative translations of the sutta. It is beautiful and one which I think many of us feel no small measure of affinity.
Thanks also for pointing out that the Khaggavisāṇa Sutta was in fact the sayings of the Paccekabuddhas. My mistaken impression was that it was the Buddha's advice to the sangha.
Also, I was interested to note that the Isigili Sutta is regarded as a paritta. If you don't mind me asking, in what way does the Isigili Sutta offer protection?
Many thanks

Ben
"One cannot step twice into the same river, nor can one grasp any mortal substance in a stable condition, but it scatters and again gathers; it forms and dissolves, and approaches and departs."

- Hereclitus


Compassionate Hands Foundation (Buddhist aid in Myanmar) • Buddhist Global ReliefUNHCR
Buddhist Life Stories of Australia

e: ben.dhammawheel@gmail.com
User avatar
Ben
Site Admin
 
Posts: 15972
Joined: Wed Dec 31, 2008 12:49 am
Location: Land of the sleeping gods

Re: Paccekabuddhas in Canon & Commentary

Postby Dhammakid » Mon Jan 05, 2009 8:12 am

Yes indeed, thank you venerable bhikkhu for providing the wonderful translations of the sutta. This greatly appeals to my introvert tendencies (although sometimes I'm an extrovert as well. Guess you can call me a multivert :D )

I second Ben's request.

Also, a question: If, when there is no Dhamma dispensation in the world, one becomes a paccekabuddha, will others in the world know about this monumental event? Or are solitary buddhas destined to anonymity until a future sammasambuddha comes along and recognizes them?

What practice leads one to paccekabuddha-hood if you don't have the Dhamma to guide you? Just meditation? Do the suttas say anything about this?

Namaste,
Dhammakid
User avatar
Dhammakid
 
Posts: 366
Joined: Fri Jan 02, 2009 7:09 am
Location: Georgia, USA

Next

Return to Classical Theravāda

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 3 guests