Vipassana taught by the Buddha

Discussion of Satipatthana bhavanā and Vipassana bhavana.

Re: Vipassana taught by the Buddha

Postby starter » Wed Jun 27, 2012 9:12 pm

Hi thanks for the input. Anapanasati is for developing the 4 mindfulness (mindfulness of body/feeling/mind/Dhamma) ["... mindfulness of in-&-out breathing is developed & pursued so as to bring the four frames of reference to their culmination"]. I tend to think the 4 tetrads can all be used for Vipassana to penetrate the anicca nature of body/feeling/mind/Dhamma, or bodily & mental formations. The penetration of the four (not only one) is needed for gaining insight on the anicca/dukkha/anatta nature of the five aggregates (body, feeling, and mind which includes perception, volitional formation and consciousness aggregates).

Yesterday at another forum I read a question concerning being mindful of body (or feeling or mind or Dhamma) alone can fulfill the mindfulness enlightenment factor and subsequently the other 6 enlightenment factors, which can bring clear knowing & release to their culmination, then why we need to practice all the 4 mindfulness ["This is how the four frames of reference are developed & pursued so as to bring the seven factors for awakening to their culmination" - MN 118]. The phrasing (or translation?) of MN 118 about this part is indeed a bit confusing. But I believe we definitely need to develop all the 4 mindfulness instead of only one, as mentioned above.

Metta to all,

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Re: Vipassana taught by the Buddha

Postby pegembara » Thu Jun 28, 2012 6:41 am

Yesterday at another forum I read a question concerning being mindful of body (or feeling or mind or Dhamma) alone can fulfill the mindfulness enlightenment factor and subsequently the other 6 enlightenment factors, which can bring clear knowing & release to their culmination, then why we need to practice all the 4 mindfulness ["This is how the four frames of reference are developed & pursued so as to bring the seven factors for awakening to their culmination" - MN 118]. The phrasing (or translation?) of MN 118 about this part is indeed a bit confusing. But I believe we definitely need to develop all the 4 mindfulness instead of only one, as mentioned above.


Surely one has to be mindful of every object that makes an appearance. Being mindful of only some frames of references means that many objects will be missed. Such degree of mindfulness surely lacks power to adequately train the mind. Besides one doesn't get to "choose" what comes up.
And what is right speech? Abstaining from lying, from divisive speech, from abusive speech, & from idle chatter: This is called right speech.
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Re: Vipassana taught by the Buddha

Postby starter » Sun Jun 15, 2014 4:26 pm

Greetings!

Today I heard The Fire Sermon, and learned to apply the teaching to the all (the six sense sets and five aggregates) by seeing them all burning with suffering. I hope I can always remember to see the all burning with suffering to grow disenchanted with them, like the one thousand monks when heard the teaching and became liberated.

Metta to all!

SN 35.28 Adittapariyaya Sutta: The Fire Sermon

"Bhikkhus, all is burning. And what is the all that is burning?

"The eye is burning, forms are burning, eye-consciousness is burning, eye-contact is burning, and whatever feeling arises with eye-contact as condition—whether pleasant or painful or neither-painful-nor-pleasant—that too is burning (so is perception and volition). Burning with what? Burning with the fire of lust, with the fire of hate, with the fire of delusion; burning with birth, aging and death; with sorrows, lamentations, pains, griefs, and despairs, I say.

"The ear is burning, sounds are burning, ear-consciousness is burning, ear-contact is burning, and whatever feeling arises with ear-contact as condition—whether pleasant or painful or neither-painful-nor-pleasant—that too is burning (so is perception and volition). Burning with what? Burning with the fire of lust, with the fire of hate, with the fire of delusion; burning with birth, aging and death; with sorrows, lamentations, pains, griefs, and despairs, I say.

"The nose is burning, odors are burning, nose-consciousness is burning, nose-contact is burning, and whatever feeling arises with nose-contact as condition—whether pleasant or painful or neither-painful-nor-pleasant—that too is burning. Burning with what? Burning with the fire of lust, with the fire of hate, with the fire of delusion; burning with birth, aging and death; with sorrows, lamentations, pains, griefs, and despairs, I say....

"The tongue is burning, flavors are burning, tongue-consciousness is burning, tongue-contact is burning, and whatever feeling arises with tongue-contact as condition—whether pleasant or painful or neither-painful-nor-pleasant—that too is burning (so is perception and volition). Burning with what? Burning with the fire of lust, with the fire of hate, with the fire of delusion; burning with birth, aging and death; with sorrows, lamentations, pains, griefs, and despairs, I say.

"The body is burning, tangibles are burning, body-consciousness is burning, body-contact is burning, and whatever feeling arises with eye-contact as condition—whether pleasant or painful or neither-painful-nor-pleasant—that too is burning (so is perception and volition). Burning with what? Burning with the fire of lust, with the fire of hate, with the fire of delusion; burning with birth, aging and death; with sorrows, lamentations, pains, griefs, and despairs, I say.

"The mind is burning, mental objects are burning, mind-consciousness is burning, mind-contact is burning, and whatever feeling arises with mind-contact as condition—whether pleasant or painful or neither-painful-nor-pleasant—that too is burning. Burning with what? Burning with the fire of lust, with the fire of hate, with the fire of delusion; burning with birth, aging and death; with sorrows, lamentations, pains, griefs, and despairs, I say.

"Seeing thus, the well-instructed noble disciple grows disenchanted with the eye, disenchanted with forms, disenchanted with consciousness at the eye, disenchanted with contact at the eye. And whatever feeling arises with eye-contact as condition—whether pleasant or painful or neither-painful-nor-pleasant: with that, too, he grows disenchanted.

"He grows disenchanted with the ear...

"He grows disenchanted with the nose...

"He grows disenchanted with the tongue...

"He grows disenchanted with the body...

"He grows disenchanted with the mind, disenchanted with mental objects, disenchanted with mind-consciousness, disenchanted with mind-contact. And whatever feeling arises with mind-contact as condition—whether pleasant or painful or neither-painful-nor-pleasant: with that, too, he grows disenchanted.

Disenchanted, he becomes dispassionate. Through dispassion, his mind is fully liberated. When liberated there comes the knowledge: ‘It’s liberated.’ He understands: ‘Destroyed is birth, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more for this state of being.’”

This is what the Supreme One said. Gratified, those bhikkhus delighted in the Supreme One’s words. And while this discourse was being spoken, the minds of the thousand bhikkhus were liberated from the taints by clinging no more."

(The "translation" is synthesized from various available versions.)
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Re: Vipassana taught by the Buddha

Postby starter » Wed Jul 16, 2014 2:35 am

Greetings!

The 10 vipassana taught in Girimānandasuttaṁ sutta (The Discourse to Girimānanda):

Evaṁ me sutaṁ:
Thus I have heard:

ekaṁ samayaṁ Bhagavā Sāvatthiyaṁ viharati
at one time the Gracious One was dwelling near Sāvatthi

Jetavane Anāthapiṇḍikassa ārāme.
at Anāthapiṇḍika's grounds in Jeta's Wood.

Tena kho pana samayena āyasmā Girimānando
Then at that time venerable Girimānanda

ābādhiko hoti dukkhito bāḷhagilāno.
was afflicted, suffering, and very sick.

Atha kho āyasmā Ānando yena Bhagavā tenupasaṅkami,
Then venerable Ānanda approached the Gracious One,

upasaṅkamitvā Bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā ekam-antaṁ nisīdi.
and after approaching and worshipping the Gracious One, he sat down on one side.

Ekam-antaṁ nisinno kho āyasmā Ānando Bhagavantaṁ etad-avoca:
While sitting on one side venerable Ānanda said this to the Gracious One:

“Āyasmā bhante Girimānando ābādhiko 02 dukkhito bāḷhagilāno.
“Reverend Sir, venerable Girimānanda is afflicted, suffering, and very sick.

Sādhu bhante Bhagavā yenāyasmā Girimānando
Please, reverend Sir, may the Gracious One approach

tenupasaṅkamatu, anukampaṁ upādāyā” ti.
venerable Girimānanda, taking pity on him.”

“Sace kho tvaṁ Ānanda Girimānandassa bhikkhuno upasaṅkamitvā,
“If you, Ānanda, having approached the monk Girimānanda,

dasasaññā bhāseyyāsi, ṭhānaṁ kho panetaṁ vijjati yaṁ
were to recite the ten perceptions, then it is possible that

Girimānandassa bhikkhuno dasasaññā sutvā
having heard the ten perceptions, the monk Girimānanda's

so ābādho ṭhānaso paṭippassambheyya.
affliction would immediately abate.

Katamā dasa?
What are the ten?

Aniccasaññā, [01]
The perception of impermanence,

anattasaññā, [02]
the perception of non-self,

asubhasaññā, [03]
the perception of the unattractive,

ādīnavasaññā, [04]
the perception of danger,

pahānasaññā, [05]
the perception of giving up,

virāgasaññā, [06]
the perception of dispassion,

nirodhasaññā, [07]
the perception of cessation,

sabbaloke anabhiratasaññā, [08]
the perception of non-delight in the whole world,

sabbasaṅkhāresu aniccasaññā, [09]
the perception of impermanence in all processes,

ānāpānasati. [10]
mindfulness while breathing.



* * *

Katamā c' Ānanda aniccasaññā? [01]
Now what, Ānanda, is the perception of impermanence?

Idh' Ānanda bhikkhu araññagato vā, rukkhamūlagato vā,
Here, Ānanda, a monk who has gone to the wilderness, or to the root of a tree,

suññāgāragato vā, iti paṭisañcikkhati:
or to an empty place, con :anjali: siders thus:

rūpaṁ aniccaṁ
form is impermanent

vedanā aniccā
feelings are impermanent

saññā aniccā
perceptions are impermanent

saṅkhārā aniccā
(mental) processes are impermanent

viññāṇaṁ aniccan-ti.
consciousness is impermanent.

Iti imesu pañcasupādānakkhandhesu aniccānupassī viharati.
Thus in regard to these five constituent groups (of mind and body) that provide fuel for attachment he dwells contemplating impermanence.

Ayaṁ vuccat' Ānanda aniccasaññā.
This, Ānanda, is called the perception of impermanence.



Katamā c' Ānanda anattasaññā? [02]
Now what, Ānanda, is the perception of non-self?

Idh' Ānanda bhikkhu araññagato vā, rukkhamūlagato vā,
Here, Ānanda, a monk who has gone to the wilderness, or to the root of a tree,

suññāgāragato vā, iti paṭisañcikkhati:
or to an empty place, considers thus:

Cakkhuṁ anattā - rūpā 03 anattā
the eye is not self - forms are not self

sotaṁ anattā - saddā anattā
the ear is not self - sounds are not self

ghāṇaṁ anattā - gandhā anattā
the nose is not self - smells are not self

jivhā anattā - rasā anattā
the tongue is not self - tastes are not self

kāyo anattā - phoṭṭhabbā anattā
the body is not self - tangibles are not self

mano anattā - dhammā anattā ti.
the mind is not self - thoughts are not self.

Iti imesu chasu ajjhattikabāhiresu āyatanesu
Thus in regard to these six internal and external sense spheres

anattānupassī viharati.
he dwells contemplating non-self.

Ayaṁ vuccat' Ānanda anattasaññā.
This, Ānanda, is called the perception of non-self.



Katamā c' Ānanda asubhasaññā? [03]
Now what, Ānanda, is the perception of the unattractive?

Idh' Ānanda bhikkhu imam-eva kāyaṁ -
Here, Ānanda, a monk (in regard to) this body -

uddhaṁ pādatalā, adho kesamatthakā, tacapariyantaṁ,
from the sole of the feet upwards, from the hair of the head down, bounded by the skin,

pūraṁ nānappakārassa asucino - paccavekkhati:
and filled with manifold impurities - reflects (thus):

Atthi imasmiṁ kāye:
There are in this body:

kesā, lomā, nakhā, dantā, taco,
hairs of the head, body hairs, nails, teeth, skin,

maṁsaṁ, nahāru, aṭṭhi, aṭṭhimiñjā, 04 vakkaṁ,
flesh, sinews, bones, bone-marrow, kidneys,

hadayaṁ, yakanaṁ, kilomakaṁ, pihakaṁ, papphāsaṁ,
heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs,

antaṁ, antaguṇaṁ, udariyaṁ, karīsaṁ,
intestines, mesentery, undigested food, excrement,

pittaṁ, semhaṁ, pubbo, lohitaṁ, sedo, medo,
bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat,

assu, vasā, kheḷo, siṅghānikā, lasikā, muttan-ti.
tears, grease, spit, mucus, synovial fluid, urine.

Iti imasmiṁ kāye asubhānupassī viharati.
Thus in regard to this body he dwells contemplating what is unattractive.

Ayaṁ vuccat' Ānanda asubhasaññā.
This, Ānanda, is called the perception of the unattractive.



Katamā c' Ānanda ādīnavasaññā? [04]
Now what, Ānanda, is the perception of danger?

Idh' Ānanda bhikkhu araññagato vā, rukkhamūlagato vā,
Here, Ānanda, a monk who has gone to the wilderness, or to the root of a tree,

suññāgāragato vā, iti paṭisañcikkhati:
or to an empty place, considers thus:

Bahu dukkho kho ayaṁ kāyo bahu ādīnavo,
This body has many sufferings, many dangers,

iti imasmiṁ kāye vividhā ābādhā uppajjanti, seyyathīdaṁ:
thus, in connection with this body, various afflictions arise, like this:

cakkhurogo, sotarogo, ghāṇarogo, jivhārogo, kāyarogo,
eye-disease, ear-disease, nose-disease, tongue-disease, body-disease (i.e diseases affecting the sense spheres),

sīsarogo, kaṇṇarogo, mukharogo, dantarogo,
head-disease, ear-disease, mouth-disease, tooth-disease,

kāso, sāso, pināso, ḍaho, jaro,
cough, asthma, catarrh, pyrexia, fever,

kucchirogo, mucchā, pakkhandikā, 05 sūlā, visūcikā,
stomach-ache, fainting, diarrhoea, gripes, cholera,

kuṭṭhaṁ, gaṇḍo, kilāso, soso, apamāro,
leprosy, boils, eczema, consumption, epilepsy,

daddu, kaṇḍu, kacchu, rakhasā, 06 vitacchikā,
ringworm, itch, scab, chickenpox, scabies,

lohitapittaṁ, madhumeho, aṁsā, piḷakā, bhagandalā,
haemorrhage, diabetes, piles, cancer, ulcers,

pittasamuṭṭhānā ābādhā, semhasamuṭṭhānā ābādhā,
afflictions arising from excess bile, afflictions arising from excess phlegm,

vātasamuṭṭhānā ābādhā, sannipātikā ābādhā,
afflictions arising from excess wind, afflictions arising from a conflict of humours,

utupariṇāmajā ābādhā, visamaparihārajā ābādhā, 07
afflictions born of a change of season, afflictions born of not being careful,

opakkamikā ābādhā, kammavipākajā ābādhā,
afflictions from being attacked, afflictions born as a result of (previous unwholesome) actions,

sītaṁ, uṇhaṁ, jighacchā, pipāsā, uccāro, passāvo ti.
cold, heat, hunger, thirst, stool, urine.

Iti imasmiṁ kāye ādīnavānupassī viharati.
Thus, in regard to this body, he dwells contemplating danger.

Ayaṁ vuccat' Ānanda ādīnavasaññā.
This, Ānanda, is called the perception of danger.



Katamā c' Ānanda pahānasaññā? [05]
Now what, Ānanda, is the perception of giving up?

Idh' Ānanda bhikkhu uppannaṁ kāmavitakkaṁ nādhivāseti,
Here, Ānanda, a monk does not consent to thoughts of sense desire that have arisen,

pajahati, vinodeti, byantīkaroti, anabhāvaṁ gameti.
(these) he gives up, dispels, brings to an end, and makes non-existent.



Uppannaṁ vyāpādavitakkaṁ nādhivāseti,
He does not consent to thoughts of ill-will that have arisen,

pajahati, vinodeti, byantīkaroti, anabhāvaṁ gameti.
(these) he gives up, dispels, brings to an end, and makes non-existent.



08 Uppannaṁ vihiṁsāvitakkaṁ nādhivāseti,
He does not consent to thoughts of violence that have arisen,

pajahati, vinodeti, byantīkaroti, anabhāvaṁ gameti.
(these) he gives up, dispels, brings to an end, and makes non-existent.



Uppannuppanne pāpake akusale dhamme nādhivāseti,
He does not consent to any bad, unwholesome, thoughts that have arisen,

pajahati, vinodeti, byantīkaroti, anabhāvaṁ gameti.
(these) he gives up, dispels, brings to an end, and makes non-existent.

Ayaṁ vuccat' Ānanda pahānasaññā.
This, Ānanda, is called the perception of giving up.



Katamā c' Ānanda virāgasaññā? [06]
Now what, Ānanda, is the perception of dispassion?

Idh' Ānanda bhikkhu araññagato vā, rukkhamūlagato vā,
Here, Ānanda, a monk who has gone to the wilderness, or to the root of a tree,

suññāgāragato vā, iti paṭisañcikkhati:
or to an empty place, considers thus:

Etaṁ santaṁ, etaṁ paṇītaṁ,
This is peaceful, this is excellent,

yad-idaṁ:
that is to say:

sabbasaṅkhārasamatho,
the tranquilising of all processes,

sabbūpadhipaṭinissaggo,
the letting go of all bases for cleaving,

taṇhakkhayo,
the end of craving,

virāgo,
dispassion,

Nibbānan-ti.
Nibbāna.

Ayaṁ vuccat' Ānanda virāgasaññā.
This, Ānanda, is called the perception of dispassion.



Katamā c' Ānanda nirodhasaññā? [07]
Now what, Ānanda, is the perception of cessation?

Idh' Ānanda bhikkhu araññagato vā, rukkhamūlagato vā,
Here, Ānanda, a monk who has gone to the wilderness, or to the root of a tree,

suññāgāragato vā, iti paṭisañcikkhati:
or to an empty place, considers thus:

Etaṁ santaṁ, etaṁ paṇītaṁ,
This is peaceful, this is excellent,

yad-idaṁ:
that is to say:

sabbasaṅkhārasamatho,
the tranquilising of all processes,

sabbūpadhipaṭinissaggo,
the letting go of all bases for cleaving,

taṇhakkhayo,
the end of craving,

nirodho,
cessation,

Nibbānan-ti.
Nibbāna.

Ayaṁ vuccat' Ānanda nirodhasaññā.
This, Ānanda, is called the perception of cessation.



Katamā c' Ānanda sabbaloke anabhiratasaññā? [08]
Now what, Ānanda, is the perception of non-delight in the whole world?

Idh' Ānanda bhikkhu ye loke upāyupādānā cetaso adhiṭṭhānābhinivesānusayā,
Here, Ānanda, a monk in regard to whatever in the world are selfish means and attachments, or mental determinations, settled beliefs, and tendencies,

te pajahanto, viramati, na upādiyanto. 09
giving these up, not being attached, he abstains (from them).

Ayaṁ vuccat' Ānanda sabbaloke anabhiratasaññā.
This, Ānanda, is the perception of non-delight in the whole world.



Katamā c' Ānanda sabbasaṅkhāresu aniccasaññā? [09]
Now what, Ānanda, is the perception of impermanence in all processes?

Idh' Ānanda bhikkhu
Here, Ānanda, a monk

sabbasaṅkhārehi 10 aṭṭīyati, harāyati, jigucchati.
in regard to all processes is distressed, ashamed, and disgusted.

Ayaṁ vuccat' Ānanda sabbasaṅkhāresu aniccasaññā.
This, Ānanda, is the perception of impermanence in all processes.



Katamā c' Ānanda ānāpānasati? [10]
Now what, Ānanda, is mindfulness while breathing?

Idh' Ānanda bhikkhu araññagato vā, rukkhamūlagato vā,
Here, Ānanda, a monk who has gone to the wilderness, or to the root of a tree,

suññāgāragato vā, nisīdati.
or to an empty place, sits down.

Pallaṅkaṁ ābhujitvā, ujuṁ kāyaṁ paṇidhāya,
After folding his legs crosswise, setting his body straight,

parimukhaṁ satiṁ upaṭṭhapetvā,
and establishing mindfulness at the front,

so sato va assasati, sato passasati.
mindful he breathes in, mindful he breathes out.



Dīghaṁ vā assasanto “dīghaṁ assasāmī” ti pajānāti,
While breathing in long, he knows “I am breathing in long”,

dīghaṁ vā passasanto “dīghaṁ passasāmī” ti pajānāti,
while breathing out long, he knows “I am breathing out long”,

rassaṁ vā assasanto “rassaṁ assasāmī” ti pajānāti,
while breathing in short, he knows “I am breathing in short”,

rassaṁ vā passasanto “rassaṁ passasāmī” ti pajānāti,
while breathing out short, he knows “I am breathing out short”,

sabbakāyapaṭisaṁvedī assasissāmī ti sikkhati,
he trains like this: experiencing the whole body I will breathe in,

sabbakāyapaṭisaṁvedī passasissāmī ti sikkhati,
he trains like this: experiencing the whole body I will breathe out,

passambhayaṁ kāyasaṅkhāraṁ assasissāmī ti sikkhati,
he trains like this: making the bodily process calm I will breathe in,

passambhayaṁ kāyasaṅkhāraṁ passasissāmī ti sikkhati.
he trains like this: making the bodily process calm I will breathe out.



Pītipaṭisaṁvedī assasissāmī ti sikkhati,
He trains like this: experiencing joy I will breathe in,

pītipaṭisaṁvedī passasissāmī ti sikkhati,
he trains like this: experiencing joy I will breathe out,

sukhapaṭisaṁvedī assasissāmī ti sikkhati,
he trains like this: experiencing pleasure I will breathe in,

sukhapaṭisaṁvedī passasissāmī ti sikkhati,
he trains like this: experiencing pleasure I will breathe out,

cittasaṅkhārapaṭisaṁvedī assasissāmī ti sikkhati,
he trains like this: experiencing the mental process I will breathe in,

cittasaṅkhārapaṭisaṁvedī passasissāmī ti sikkhati,
he trains like this: experiencing the mental process I will breathe out,

passambhayaṁ cittasaṅkhāraṁ assasissāmī ti sikkhati,
he trains like this: making the mental process calm I will breathe in,

passambhayaṁ cittasaṅkhāraṁ passasissāmī ti sikkhati.
he trains like this: making the mental process calm I will breathe out.



Cittapaṭisaṁvedī assasissāmī ti sikkhati,
He trains like this: experiencing the mind I will breathe in,

cittapaṭisaṁvedī passasissāmī ti sikkhati,
he trains like this: experiencing the mind I will breathe out,

abhippamodayaṁ cittaṁ assasissāmī ti sikkhati,
he trains like this: gladdening the mind I will breathe in,

abhippamodayaṁ cittaṁ passasissāmī ti sikkhati,
he trains like this: gladdening the mind I will breathe out,

samādahaṁ cittaṁ assasissāmī ti sikkhati,
he trains like this: concentrating the mind I will breathe in,

samādahaṁ cittaṁ passasissāmī ti sikkhati,
he trains like this: concentrating the mind I will breathe out,

vimocayaṁ cittaṁ assasissāmī ti sikkhati,
he trains like this: freeing the mind I will breathe in,

vimocayaṁ cittaṁ passasissāmī ti sikkhati.
he trains like this: freeing the mind I will breathe out.



Aniccānupassī assasissāmī ti sikkhati,
He trains like this: contemplating impermanence I will breathe in,

aniccānupassī passasissāmī ti sikkhati,
he trains like this: contemplating impermanence I will breathe out,

virāgānupassī assasissāmī ti sikkhati,
he trains like this: contemplating dispassion I will breathe in,

virāgānupassī passasissāmī ti sikkhati,
he trains like this: contemplating dispassion I will breathe out,

nirodhānupassī assasissāmī ti sikkhati,
he trains like this: contemplating cessation I will breathe in,

nirodhānupassī passasissāmī ti sikkhati,
he trains like this: contemplating cessation I will breathe out,

paṭinissaggānupassī assasissāmī ti sikkhati,
he trains like this: contemplating letting go I will breathe in,

paṭinissaggānupassī passasissāmī ti sikkhati.
he trains like this: contemplating letting go I will breathe out.

Ayaṁ vuccat' Ānanda ānāpānasati.
This, Ānanda, is mindfulness while breathing.



Sace kho tvaṁ Ānanda Girimānandassa bhikkhuno upasaṅkamitvā,
If you, Ānanda, having approached the monk Girimānanda,

imā dasasaññā bhāseyyāsi, ṭhānaṁ kho panetaṁ vijjati yaṁ
were to recite these ten percpetions, then it is possible that

Girimānandassa bhikkhuno imā dasasaññā sutvā
having heard these ten perceptions, the monk Girimānanda's

so ābādho ṭhānaso paṭippassambheyyā” ti.
affliction would immediately abate.”



Atha kho āyasmā Ānando Bhagavato santike imā dasasaññā uggahetvā,
Then venerable Ānanda, having learned these ten perceptions from the Gracious One,

yenāyasmā Girimānando tenupasaṅkami,
approached venerable Girimānanda,

upasaṅkamitvā āyasmato Girimānandassa imā dasasaññā abhāsi.
and after approaching he recited these ten perceptions to venerable Girimānanda.

Atha kho āyasmato Girimānandassa imā dasasaññā sutvā
Then, having heard these ten perceptions, venerable Girimānanda's

so ābādho ṭhānaso paṭippassambhi,
afliction immediately abated,

vuṭṭhāhi cāyasmā Girimānando tamhā ābādhā,
and venerable Girimānanda recovered from that affliction,

tathā pahīno ca panāyasmato Girimānandassa so ābādho ahosī ti.
and by that venerable Girimānanda's affliction was brought to an end.

[From http://www.ancient-buddhist-texts.net/T ... ram-20.htm]
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Re: Vipassana taught by the Buddha

Postby starter » Thu Jul 17, 2014 12:00 am

starter wrote:Hi I listened to the 16 steps several times today and realized that ... 4th tetrad (contemplation of the Dhamma) seems to mean experiencing/contemplating anicca/fading away/cessation/relinquishment of every in-breath and out-breath, instead of things other than breath.
The contemplation of the five aggregates as anicca/dukkha/anatta and the contemplation of nibbana don't seem to be done during the 16 steps, but probably another way of meditation after entering jhana.
Welcome your comments. Thanks and metta,
Starter


I'd like to correct myself and share my updated understanding on the 4th tetrad. The contemplation of Dhammas is actually the same in MN 118 and MN 64:

1) Contemplate anicca/dukkha/anatta of the five aggregates [involved in the jhana].
2) Contemplate dispassion and disenchantment towards the five aggregates [and the jhana].
3) Contemplate cessation [of attachment to the five aggregates and the jhana, and the cessation of greed/aversion/delusion].
4) Contemplate Nibbana.

More relevant discussions can be found in the following thread:

Anapanasati Vs. jhana
viewtopic.php?f=41&t=7308&p=301643#p301643

Metta to all! :anjali:
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Re: Vipassana taught by the Buddha

Postby alan » Thu Jul 17, 2014 12:43 am

Without a basis of strong concentration, none of this will be of any value. If you have it, anything can serve as a meditative object--just observe. Things will arise and fall away. They aren't solid; they are not yourself.
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Re: Vipassana taught by the Buddha

Postby Mkoll » Thu Jul 17, 2014 6:39 am

alan wrote:Without a basis of strong concentration, none of this will be of any value.

Depends on your definition of "strong concentration".

AN 4.170 wrote:On one occasion Ven. Ananda was staying in Kosambi, at Ghosita's monastery. There he addressed the monks, "Friends!"

"Yes, friend," the monks responded.

Ven. Ananda said: "Friends, whoever — monk or nun — declares the attainment of arahantship in my presence, they all do it by means of one or another of four paths. Which four?

"There is the case where a monk has developed insight preceded by tranquillity. As he develops insight preceded by tranquillity, the path is born. He follows that path, develops it, pursues it. As he follows the path, developing it & pursuing it — his fetters are abandoned, his obsessions destroyed.

"Then there is the case where a monk has developed tranquillity preceded by insight. As he develops tranquillity preceded by insight, the path is born. He follows that path, develops it, pursues it. As he follows the path, developing it & pursuing it — his fetters are abandoned, his obsessions destroyed.

"Then there is the case where a monk has developed tranquillity in tandem with insight. As he develops tranquillity in tandem with insight, the path is born. He follows that path, develops it, pursues it. As he follows the path, developing it & pursuing it — his fetters are abandoned, his obsessions destroyed.

"Then there is the case where a monk's mind has its restlessness concerning the Dhamma [Comm: the corruptions of insight] well under control. There comes a time when his mind grows steady inwardly, settles down, and becomes unified & concentrated. In him the path is born. He follows that path, develops it, pursues it. As he follows the path, developing it & pursuing it — his fetters are abandoned, his obsessions destroyed.

"Whoever — monk or nun — declares the attainment of arahantship in my presence, they all do it by means of one or another of these four paths."
Peace,
James
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Re: Vipassana taught by the Buddha

Postby Qianxi » Thu Jul 17, 2014 10:52 am

Hello starter. I'll respond to the you of three years ago!

starter wrote:Indeed, the Agamas were introduced to and translated (around end 300 A.C.) in China well before Mahayana.

Actually Mahayana texts had been translated into Chinese since about 150 AD. It wasnt until 250 years later around 400 AD that within the space of a few decades several complete Agama collections and complete vinayas were translated.

starter wrote:One could argue that the Buddha taught the contemplation of anicca as bare attention of the phenomena of arising and passing away with regard to the body, feelings, mind and the Dhamma in the Satipatthana Sutta (MN 10 and DN 22), but such anicca contemplations are not found in the early Chinese agama versions of the equivalent suttas.


There's an interesting recent book comparing different versions of the Satipatthana Sutta called "Perspectives on Satipatthana" by Bhikkhu Analayo.
It's true that the refrain after each contemplation in the Majjhima Nikaya mentions arising and passing away and the refrain in the Madhyama Agama does not. However the refrain in the Ekottarika Agama, another Chinese agama collection, does mention arising and passing away. Analayo then looks at various versions of the Anapanasati Sutta and comes to the conclusion that contemplation of impermanence is a key part of Satipatthana practice, and its absence from the Madhyama Agama version should not be given too much weight.

I'll copy out Analayo's translations of the what he calls the 'refrain' from the three versions of the Satipatthana Sutta. This is the refrain after the contemplation of feelings.

Majjhima Nikaya:
In regard to feelings one abides contemplating feelings internally ... externally ... internally and externally.
Or one abides contemplating the nature of arising ... the nature of passing away ... the nature of arising and passing away in feelings.
Or mindfulness that "there is feeling" is established in oneself just for the sake of bare knowledge and for the sake of continuous mindfulness. And one abides independent, not clinging to anything in the world.


Madhyama Agama:
In this way ... one contemplates feelings as feelings internally and ... externally. One establishes mindfulness in feelings and is endowed with knowledge, vision, understanding, and penetration.


Ekottarika Agama:
One [contemplates] their nature of arising ... of ceasing ... of arising and ceasing ...
Further, one is able to know and able to see that these are feelings that manifest here and now, giving attention to their origination. Not depending on anything, one experiences joy in oneself [by removing evil thoughts and being free from worry and sorrow], not arousing worldly perceptions.
Herein one is also not agitated, and because of not being agitated one attains Nirvana, knowing as it really is that "birth and death have been extinguished, the holy life has been established, what had to be done has been done, there is no more experiencing of [another] existence."
In this way ... one contemplates one's own feelings internally, discarding distracted thoughts and [experiencing joy in oneself by removing evil thoughts and] being free from worry and sorrow ... externally ... internally and externally ...
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Re: Vipassana taught by the Buddha

Postby Spiny Norman » Thu Jul 17, 2014 12:15 pm

alan wrote:Without a basis of strong concentration, none of this will be of any value. If you have it, anything can serve as a meditative object--just observe. Things will arise and fall away. They aren't solid; they are not yourself.


I broadly agree, but what degree of samadhi do you think is required?
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Re: Vipassana taught by the Buddha

Postby alan » Fri Jul 18, 2014 12:27 am

Not Samadhi, concentration. It's the foundation of everything, and often underrated.
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Re: Vipassana taught by the Buddha

Postby culaavuso » Fri Jul 18, 2014 12:38 am

alan wrote:Not Samadhi, concentration.

What is the definition of these two terms, and how do they differ?
PTS Dictionary: Samādhi wrote:Samādhi [fr. saŋ+ā+dhā] 1. concentration; a concen- trated, self -- collected, intent state of mind and meditation, which, concomitant with right living, is a necessary condition to the attainment of higher wisdom and emancipation.
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Re: Vipassana taught by the Buddha

Postby alan » Fri Jul 18, 2014 12:53 am

I'm assuming Samadhi refers to the first Jhana, which most people think they will never reach, and am using the word concentration to describe a state of focused, sustained awareness--a state that can be attained through normal practice for those who are dedicated and determined.
Last edited by alan on Fri Jul 18, 2014 1:10 am, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Vipassana taught by the Buddha

Postby culaavuso » Fri Jul 18, 2014 1:09 am

alan wrote:I'm assuming Samadhi refers to the first Jhana, and am using the word concentration to describe a state of focused, sustained awareness. A state that can be reached through normal practice for those who are dedicated and determined.


So perhaps something like parikamma samādhi, upacāra samādhi, or khaṇika samādhi?

Right Concentration (Samma Samadhi) by Ven. Bhikkhu Bodhi wrote:After receiving his meditation subject from a teacher, or selecting it on his own, the meditator retires to a quiet place. There he assumes the correct meditation posture -- the legs crossed comfortably, the upper part of the body held straight and erect, hands placed one above the other on the lap, the head kept steady, the mouth and eyes closed (unless a kasina or other visual object is used), the breath flowing naturally and regularly through the nostrils. He then focuses his mind on the object and tries to keep it there, fixed and alert. If the mind strays, he notices this quickly, catches it, and brings it back gently but firmly to the object, doing this over and over as often as is necessary. This initial stage is called preliminary concentration (parikkamma-samadhi)
...
Simultaneously with the appearance of the counterpart sign, the five absorption factors suppress the five hindrances, and the mind enters the stage of concentration called upacara-samadhi, "access concentration." Here, in access concentration, the mind is drawing close to absorption. It has entered the "neighbourhood" (a possible meaning of upacara) of absorption, but more work is still needed for it to become fully immersed in the object, the defining mark of absorption.
...
The kinds of concentration discussed so far arise by fixing the mind upon a single object to the exclusion of other objects. But apart from these there is another kind of concentration which does not depend upon restricting the range of awareness. This is called "momentary concentration" (khanika-samadhi). To develop momentary concentration the meditator does not deliberately attempt to exclude the multiplicity of phenomena from his field of attention. Instead, he simply directs mindfulness to the changing states of mind and body, noting any phenomenon that presents itself; the task is to maintain a continuous awareness of whatever enters the range of perception, clinging to nothing. As he goes on with his noting, concentration becomes stronger moment after moment until it becomes established one-pointedly on the constantly changing stream of events. Despite the change in the object, the mental unification remains steady, and in time acquires a force capable of suppressing the hindrances to a degree equal to that of access concentration. This fluid, mobile concentration is developed by the practice of the four foundations of mindfulness, taken up along the path of insight; when sufficiently strong it issues in the breakthrough to the last stage of the path, the arising of wisdom.
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Re: Vipassana taught by the Buddha

Postby alan » Fri Jul 18, 2014 1:15 am

No, more like a still pond of clear water. Not sure what the sign is supposed to mean, or if there is "access concentration". It's nothing I'm familiar with. From the commentaries, I assume?
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Re: Vipassana taught by the Buddha

Postby culaavuso » Fri Jul 18, 2014 1:27 am

alan wrote:No, more like a still pond of clear water. Not sure what the sign is supposed to mean, or if there is "access concentration". It's nothing I'm familiar with. From the commentaries, I assume?


"Sign" appears to be a translation of nimitta, sometimes also translated as "theme". Themes are described in the Nikāyas in suttas such as AN 3.100 and SN 46.51.

Perhaps the still pond of clear water refers to something like sati-sampajañña, sometimes translated as mindfulness and awareness?

Mindfulness and Awareness by Ven. Ñāṇavīra Thera wrote:The Pali word for awareness is sampajañña. In the suttas it is frequently linked with mindfulness (sati) in the compound sati-sampajañña, mindfulness and awareness. In the Satipatthana Sutta, awareness (of bodily actions) is included in the section on mindfulness of the body, so we can perhaps conclude that, while it is not different from mindfulness, awareness is rather more specialised in meaning. Mindfulness is general recollectedness, not being scatterbrained; whereas awareness is more precisely keeping oneself under constant observation, not letting one’s actions (or thoughts, or feelings etc.) pass unnoticed.
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Re: Vipassana taught by the Buddha

Postby alan » Fri Jul 18, 2014 1:42 am

No, the pond is quiet and calm when your mind is concentrated. Bright and clear, expansive.
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Re: Vipassana taught by the Buddha

Postby rowboat » Fri Jul 18, 2014 2:26 am

Excerpt from: Mahathera Nyanatiloka's Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines

samādhi: concentration'; lit. 'the (mental) state of being firmly fixed' (sam+ā+√hā), is the fixing of the mind on a single object. "One-pointedness of mind (cittassekaggatā), Brother Visakha, this is called concentration" (M. 44). Concentration - though often very weak - is one of the 7 mental concomitants inseparably associated with all consciousness. Cf. nāma, cetanā.

Right concentration (sammā-samādhi), as the last link of the 8-fold Path (s. magga), is defined as the 4 meditative absorptions (jhāna, q.v.). In a wider sense, comprising also much weaker states of concentration, it is associated with all kammically wholesome (kusala) consciousness. Wrong concentration (micchā-samādhi) is concentration associated with all kammically unwholesome (akusala, q.v.) consciousness. Wherever in the texts this term is not differentiated by 'right' or 'wrong', there 'right' concentration is meant .

In concentration one distinguishes 3 grades of intensity:

(1) 'Preparatory concentration' (parikamma-samādhi) existing at the beginning of the mental exercise.

(2) 'Neighbourhood concentration' (upacāra-samādhi), i.e. concentration 'approaching' but not yet attaining the 1st absorption (jhāna, q.v.), which in certain mental exercises is marked by the appearance of the so-called 'counter-image' (paṭibhāga-nimitta).

(3) 'Attainment concentration' (appanā-samādhi), i.e. that concentration which is present during the absorptions. (App.)

Further details, s. bhāvanā, Vis.M. III and Fund. IV.

Concentration connected with the 4 noble path-moments (magga), and fruition-moments (phala), is called supermundane (lokuttara), having Nibbāna as object. Any other concentration, even that of the sublimest absorptions is merely mundane (lokiya, q.v.).

According to D. 33, the development of concentration (samādhi-bhāvanā) may procure a 4-fold blessing: (1) present happiness through the 4 absorptions; (2) knowledge and vision (ñāṇa-dassana) - here probably identical with the 'divine eye' (s. abhiññā) through perception of light (kasiṇa); (3) mindfulness and clear comprehension through the clear knowledge of the arising, persisting and vanishing of feelings, perceptions and thoughts; (4) extinction of all cankers (āsavakkhaya) through understanding the arising and passing away of the 5 groups forming the objects of clinging (s. khandha).

Concentration is one of the 7 factors of enlightenment (bojjhaṅga, q.v.), one of the 5 spiritual faculties and powers (s. bala), and the last link of the 8-fold Path. In the 3-fold division of the 8-fold Path (morality, concentration and wisdom), it is a collective name for the three last links of the path (s. sikkhā).
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Re: Vipassana taught by the Buddha

Postby Spiny Norman » Fri Jul 18, 2014 8:26 am

alan wrote:I'm assuming Samadhi refers to the first Jhana, which most people think they will never reach, and am using the word concentration to describe a state of focused, sustained awareness--a state that can be attained through normal practice for those who are dedicated and determined.


"Concentration" is often used as a translation of samadhi, though it's not necessarily a good translation. In the suttas samma samadhi is defined in terms of the 4 jhanas. However the absorption factors of jhana can be present in varying degrees, as can samadhi.
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Re: Vipassana taught by the Buddha

Postby starter » Sat Jul 19, 2014 1:55 am

Qianxi wrote:
starter wrote:One could argue that the Buddha taught the contemplation of anicca as bare attention of the phenomena of arising and passing away with regard to the body, feelings, mind and the Dhamma in the Satipatthana Sutta (MN 10 and DN 22), but such anicca contemplations are not found in the early Chinese agama versions of the equivalent suttas.


There's an interesting recent book comparing different versions of the Satipatthana Sutta called "Perspectives on Satipatthana" by Bhikkhu Analayo.
It's true that the refrain after each contemplation in the Majjhima Nikaya mentions arising and passing away and the refrain in the Madhyama Agama does not. However the refrain in the Ekottarika Agama, another Chinese agama collection, does mention arising and passing away. Analayo then looks at various versions of the Anapanasati Sutta and comes to the conclusion that contemplation of impermanence is a key part of Satipatthana practice, and its absence from the Madhyama Agama version should not be given too much weight.

I'll copy out Analayo's translations of the what he calls the 'refrain' from the three versions of the Satipatthana Sutta. This is the refrain after the contemplation of feelings.

Majjhima Nikaya:
In regard to feelings one abides contemplating feelings internally ... externally ... internally and externally.
Or one abides contemplating the nature of arising ... the nature of passing away ... the nature of arising and passing away in feelings.
Or mindfulness that "there is feeling" is established in oneself just for the sake of bare knowledge and for the sake of continuous mindfulness. And one abides independent, not clinging to anything in the world.


Hello Qianxi, thanks for your input.

As I undertand, for the beginners to establish the four foundations of mindfulness, it's indeed necessary to start with the "bare attention" (and discernment) of body/feeling/mind/Dhammas and their anicca nature, as taught in MN10 (and DN 22) and the corresponding Agamas. By such "bare attention", "one is able to know and able to see that these are feelings (bodily parts/activities, mind states, Dhammas) that manifest here and now", and that they are anicca. So "Bare attention" is not really a modern invention.

However, vipassana taught by the Buddha is not only just noting things with bare attention. After establishing the four basic foundations of mindfulness, vipassana involves much more Dhamma vicaya -- analysis of Dhamma. Even in MN 10 (which I consider as the introductory teaching on establishing mindfulness), these contemplation involves comparisons and reflections such as:

"This body too is of the same nature, it will be like that, it is not exempt from that fate."

"In this way he remains focused internally on the body (feelings, mind, and Dhammas) in & of itself, or externally on the body in & of itself, or both internally & externally on the body in & of itself. Or he remains focused on the phenomenon of origination with regard to the body, on the phenomenon of passing away with regard to the body, or on the phenomenon of origination & passing away with regard to the body. Or his mindfulness that 'There is a mind' is maintained to the extent of (bare) knowledge & remembrance ("not arousing worldly perceptions", "discarding distracted thoughts and being free from worry and sorrow). And he remains independent, unsustained by (not clinging to) anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on the body in & of itself. [Such contemplations lead to the penetration that all bodies/feelings/mind states/Dhammas have the same nature of anicca]

"And how does a bhikkhu abide contemplating Dhammas as Dhammas in terms of the five hindrances? Here, there being sensual desire in him, a bhikkhu understands: ‘There is sensual desire in me’; or there being no sensual desire in him, he understands: ‘There is no sensual desire in me’; and he also understands how there comes to be the arising of unarisen sensual desire, and how there comes to be the abandoning of arisen sensual desire, and how there comes to be the future non-arising of abandoned sensual desire.’ [Then the contemplation proceeds with the five aggregates, the six bases, the seven enlightenment factors, and the four Noble Truths. Each contemplation involves examining, reflecting, investigating, ..., instead of merely "bare attention".]

The following summary in Madhyama Agama points out the nature of "vipassana" very well:


Madhyama Agama:
In this way ... one contemplates feelings as feelings internally and ... externally. One establishes mindfulness in feelings and is endowed with knowledge, vision, understanding, and penetration.
"

Metta to all!
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Re: Vipassana taught by the Buddha

Postby starter » Sun Sep 21, 2014 10:21 pm

Greetings!

Just found another sutta in which the Buddha taught vipassana (

DN 2:

Insight Knowledge
"With his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to knowledge and vision. He discerns: 'This body of mine is endowed with form, composed of the four primary elements, born from mother and father, nourished with rice and porridge, subject to inconstancy, rubbing, pressing, dissolution, and dispersion. And this consciousness of mine is supported here and bound up here.' Just as if there were a beautiful beryl gem of the purest water — eight faceted, well polished, clear, limpid, consummate in all its aspects, and going through the middle of it was a blue, yellow, red, white, or brown thread — and a man with good eyesight, taking it in his hand, were to reflect on it thus: 'This is a beautiful beryl gem of the purest water, eight faceted, well polished, clear, limpid, consummate in all its aspects. And this, going through the middle of it, is a blue, yellow, red, white, or brown thread.' In the same way — with his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to imperturbability — the monk directs and inclines it to knowledge and vision. He discerns: 'This body of mine is endowed with form, composed of the four primary elements, born from mother and father, nourished with rice and porridge, subject to inconstancy, rubbing, pressing, dissolution, and dispersion. And this consciousness of mine is supported here and bound up here.'

[From http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka ... .than.html]
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