centered on detachment, centered on dispassion, centered on cessation, ending in relinquishment
BB: This entire sutta is quoted by the Buddha at 3:18, in a conversation with King Pasenadi. Spk has commented on the text there and thus passes over it here. I draw the excerpts below from Spk’s exegesis of the earlier text. In Be and Ee the name of the town is Sakkara.
BB: Kalyāṇamittatā kalyāṇasahāyatā kalyāṇasampavaṅkatā. The three are synonymous.
Spk: When he was in seclusion Ānanda thought, “This practice of an ascetic succeeds for one who relies on good friends and on his own manly effort, so half of it depends on good friends and half on one’s own manly effort.”
BB: C.Rh.D renders kalyāṇamitto bhikkhu “a bhikkhu who is a friend of righteousness” (KS 1:113); Woodward, “a monk who is a friend of what is lovely” (KS 5:2); Ireland, “a bhikkhu who is a friend of the good” (SN-Anth 1:75).
These renderings all rest on a misunderstanding of the grammatical form of the expression. As an independent substantive, kalyāṇamitta means a good friend, i.e., a spiritual friend who gives advice, guidance, and encouragement. When used in apposition to bhikkhu, however, kalyāṇamitta becomes a bahubbbīhi compound, and the whole expression means “a bhikkhu who has a good friend.” To represent this formally: yassa bhikkhuno kalyāṇamittaṃ hoti (not yo bhikkhu kalyāṇassa mittaṃ hoti), so kalyāṇamitto bhikkhū ti vuccati (my own etymology).
On the importance of the good friend, see below
SN 45:49, http://www.metta.lk/tipitaka/2Sutta-Pit ... alo-e.html
SN 45:63, http://www.metta.lk/tipitaka/2Sutta-Pit ... alo-e.html
SN 45:77, http://www.metta.lk/tipitaka/2Sutta-Pit ... alo-e.html
and also AN IV 351-53 (= Ud 34-37).
http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka ... .than.html
http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka ... .irel.html
Spk: With children, it isn’t possible to say, “So much comes from the mother, so much from the father”; the same is true in this case too. One cannot say, “So much of right view, etc., comes from good friends, so much from one’s own manly effort.” The Blessed One says in effect: “The four paths, the four fruits, etc., are all rooted in the good friend.”
[*] BB: The vivekanissita formula is affixed to the path factors at Vibh 236. Spk explains seclusion (viveka) in the light of the commentarial notion of the fivefold seclusion: (i) “in a particular respect” (tadaṅga, temporarily, by the practice of insight); (ii) by suppression (vikkhambhana, temporarily, by attainment of jhāna); (iii) by eradication (samuccheda, permanently, by the supramundane path); (iv) by subsiding (paṭippassaddhi, permanently, in fruition); and (v) by escape (nissaraṇa, permanently, in Nibbāna). In the next two paragraphs I translate from Spk.
“He develops right view dependent on seclusion (vivekanissitaṃ ): dependent on seclusion in a particular respect, dependent on seclusion by eradication, dependent on seclusion by escape. For at the moment of insight this meditator, devoted to the development of the noble path, develops right view dependent on seclusion in a particular respect by way of function and dependent on seclusion by escape as inclination (since he inclines to Nibbāna); at the time of the path, he develops it dependent on seclusion by eradication as function and dependent on seclusion by escape as object (since the path takes Nibbāna as object). The same method of explanation is also extended to the terms ‘dependent on dispassion’ (virāganissita) and ‘dependent on cessation’ (nirodhanissita).When I translate vossagga as “release,” this should be understood as the act of releasing or the state of having released rather than as the experience of being released. Vossagga and paṭinissagga are closely related, both etymologically and in meaning, but as used in the Nikāyas a subtle difference seems to separate them. Paṭinissagga, here translated “relinquishment,” pertains primarily to the phase of insight and thus might be understood as the active elimination of defilements through insight into the impermanence of all conditioned things. Vossagga, as that in which the path matures, probably signifies the final state in which all attachment is utterly given up, and thus comes close in meaning to Nibbāna as the goal of the path. Paṭinissagga occurs as a distinct contemplation, the last, in the sixteen steps in the development of mindfulness of breathing (see SN 54:1[The Samyutta is here:http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/index.html#sn54]). Though Spk glosses it in the same way as it does vossagga (see n. 293 below), in the suttas themselves the two terms are used with different nuances.
“Release (vossagga) is twofold, release as giving up (pariccāga ) and release as entering into (pakkhandana). ‘Release as giving up’ is the abandoning (pahāna) of defilements: in a particular respect (tadaṅgavasena) on the occasion of insight, by eradication (samucchedavasena) at the moment of the supramundane path. ‘Release as entering into’ is the entering into Nibbāna: by way of inclination towards that (tadninnabhāvena) on the occasion of insight, and by making it the object (ārammaṇakaraṇena) at the moment of the path. Both methods are suitable in this exposition, which combines the mundane (insight) and the supramundane (the path). The path is maturing in release (vossaggapariṇāmi) because it is maturing towards or has matured in release, meaning that it is ripening towards or has ripened (in release). The bhikkhu engaged in developing the path is ‘ripening’ the path for the sake of giving up defilements and entering into Nibbāna, and he develops it so that it has ‘ripened’ thus.”
From SN 45.1
“He trains thus: ‘Contemplating impermanence, I will breathe in’; he trains thus: ‘Contemplating impermanence, I will breathe out.’ He trains thus: ‘Contemplating fading away, I will breathe in’; he trains thus: ‘Contemplating fading away, I will breathe out.’ He trains thus: ‘Contemplating cessation, I will breathe in’; he trains thus: ‘Contemplating cessation, I will breathe out.’ He trains thus: ‘Contemplating relinquishment, I will breathe in’; he trains thus: ‘Contemplating relinquishment, I will breathe out.’
Note: 293 “Contemplating impermanence” (aniccānupassī) is contemplation of the five aggregates as impermanent because they undergo rise and fall and change, or because they undergo momentary dissolution. This tetrad deals entirely with insight, unlike the other three, which can be interpreted by way of both serenity and insight. “Contemplating fading away” (virāgānupassī) and “contemplating cessation” (nirodhānupassī) can be understood both as the insight into the momentary destruction and cessation of phenomena and as the supramundane path, which realizes Nibbāna as the fading away of lust (virāga, dispassion) and the cessation of formations. “Contemplating relinquishment” (paṭinissaggānupassī) is the giving up (pariccāga) or abandoning (pahāna) of defilements through insight and the entering into (pakkhandana) Nibbāna by attainment of the path. See n. 7 (the above note)
Spk: Because Ānanda had not reached the peak in the knowledge of a disciple’s perfections he did not know that the entire holy life of the path depends on a good friend, but since the General of the Dhamma (Sāriputta) had reached the peak in the knowledge of a disciple’s perfections he knew this; therefore he spoke thus and the Blessed One applauded him.