Moderator: Mahavihara moderator
Sekha wrote:It seems that the original list did not mean to be exhaustive, but it has been considered later on that it should be. Hence adding the brain, but there are a lot more things that could be added to the list. As stated above, I think it is merely a list of repulsive body contents people of that time would easily know of.
115. This is the covering of the flesh, which is of two kinds, namely, the concealed
and the unconcealed. As to colour, both kinds are white, the colour of dukúla
(muslin) rags. As to shape, it is the shape of its location. As to direction, the
concealed midriff lies in the upper direction, the other in both directions. As to
location, the concealed midriff is to be found concealing the heart and kidney;
the unconcealed is to be found covering the flesh under the inner skin throughout
the whole body. As to delimitation, it is bounded below by the flesh, above by the
inner skin, and all round by what appertains to midriff ...
*Kilomaka—“midriff”: the rendering is obviously quite inadequate for what is
described here, but there is no appropriate English word.
120. This is what has been eaten, drunk, chewed and tasted, and is present in the
stomach. As to colour, it is the colour of swallowed food. As to shape, it is the shape of
rice loosely tied in a cloth strainer. As to direction, it is in the upper direction. As to
location, it is in the stomach.
121. What is called the “stomach” is [a part of] the bowel-membrane, which is
like the swelling [of air] produced in the middle of a length of wet cloth when it
is being [twisted and] wrung out from the two ends. It is smooth outside. Inside,
it is like a balloon of cloth* soiled by wrapping up meat refuse; or it can be said
to be like the inside of the skin of a rotten jack fruit. It is the place where worms
dwell seething in tangles: the thirty-two families of worms, such as round worms,
boil-producing worms, “palm-splinter” worms, needle-mouthed worms, tape-
worms, thread worms, and the rest**. When there is no food and drink,  etc.,
present, they leap up shrieking and pounce upon the heart’s flesh; and when
food and drink, etc., are swallowed, they wait with uplifted mouths and scramble
to snatch the first two or three lumps swallowed. It is these worms’ maternity
home, privy, hospital and charnel ground. Just as when it has rained heavily in
a time of drought and what has been carried by the water into the cesspit at the
gate of an outcaste village—the various kinds of ordure*** such as urine, excrement,
bits of hide and bones and sinews, as well as spittle, snot, blood, etc.—gets
mixed up with the mud and water already collected there; and after two or three
days the families of worms appear, and it ferments, warmed by the energy of the
sun’s heat, frothing and bubbling on the top, quite black in colour, and so utterly
stinking and loathsome that one can scarcely go near it or look at it, much less
smell or taste it, so too, [the stomach is where] the assortment of food, drink, etc.,
falls after being pounded up by the tongue and stuck together with spittle and
saliva, losing at that moment its virtues of colour, smell, taste, etc., and taking on
the appearance of weavers’ paste and dogs’ vomit, then to get soused in the bile
and phlegm and wind that have collected there, where it ferments with the
energy of the stomach-fire’s heat, seethes with the families of worms, frothing
and bubbling on the top, till it turns into utterly stinking nauseating muck, even
to hear about which takes away any appetite for food, drink, etc., let alone to see
it with the eye of understanding. And when the food, drink, etc., fall into it, they
get divided into five parts: the worms eat one part, the stomach-fire bums up
another part, another part becomes urine, another part becomes excrement, and
one part is turned into nourishment and sustains the blood, flesh and so on.
122. As to delimitation, it is bounded by the stomach lining and by what
appertains to gorge ...
*Maísaka-sambupali-veþhana-kiliþþha-pávára-pupphaka-sadisa: this is rendered into
Sinhalese by kuóu mas kasa¿a velu porõná kaðek pup (“an inflated piece (or bag) of cloth,
which has wrapped rotten meat refuse”). In PED pávára is given as “cloak, mantle”
and (this ref.) as “the mango tree”; but there seems to be no authority for the rendering
“mango tree,” which has nothing to do with this context. Pupphaka (balloon) is not in
PED (cf. common Burmese spelling of bubbu¿a (bubble) as pupphu¿a).
**It would be a mistake to take the renderings of these worms’ names too literally.
Gaóðuppada (boil-producing worm?) appears only as “earth worm” in PED, which will
not do here. The more generally accepted reading seems to take paþatantuka and
suttaka (tape-worm and thread-worm) as two kinds rather than paþatantusuttaka; neither
is in PED.
***Kuóapa—“ordure”; PED only gives the meaning “corpse,” which does not fit the
meaning either here or, e.g., at XI.21, where the sense of a dead body is inappropriate.
Registered users: Billymac29, Bing [Bot], bluelynch, dharmagoat, diptych4, fivebells, Google [Bot], inge, kiwi, kmath, Majestic-12 [Bot], Majjhima Patipada, Modus.Ponens, Mr Man, onaquest, reflection, Sam Vara, troxet