Thank you Ven. Pesala and Bakmoon for the suggestions. I'm slowly making my way through reading the Vinaya sections of relevance. So far I see the 3 first suttas (dhammacakkappavattana, anattalakhana, aditta pariyaya) as well as what looks like some SN and AN suttas with Brahma Sahampati imploring the Buddha to teach, etc. In the vinaya it seems to be woven together in chronological order without identifying sutta passages explicitly as such.
All of the Theravadan chant books I've seen have the first 3 suttas. I'm wondering if it's known whether during the Buddha's time, there was a core set of suttas that were required to be memorized by all monastics, such as the 3 first suttas? I would guess something like Khandha sutta (the one sending metta to 4 main naga tribes, all creatures etc) would also be essential. I think SN 45.8 which gives the basic framework of the eightfold noble path might be required for memorization, as well as 16 steps of anapanasati.