piotr wrote:Sylvester's argument is that based on the grammar one can inferre that the "walking passage" refers to the establishment of sati and not to the jhānas.
Oh.... Hmm.... But that doesn't proof OP wrong, does it?
Reading the sutta as it is, I get the idea that the jhanas are the result of establishing sati, and one progresses to higher jhanas through establishing of sati. So, greater jhanas are simply greater establishment of sati. How else can it be?
I'm not even sure if the "argument from grammar" is conclusive. If you read whole sutta
you can conclude that it's not the establishment of sati
that makes Buddha's walking, standing, sitting or laying down divine or noble, but states which proceed after the establishment of sati
, namely: jhānas
and retrospective knowledge of attainment of arahantship.
I'm in agreement that the sg/pl distinction is probably not going to be very helpful. I think it's probably more fruitful to nit-pick on another grammatical point, namely the underlined word -
So ce ahaṃ, brāhmaṇa, evaṃbhūto caṅkamāmi, dibbo me eso tasmiṃ samaye caṅkamo hoti. So ce ahaṃ, brāhmaṇa, evaṃbhūto tiṭṭhāmi, dibbaṃ me etaṃ tasmiṃ samaye ṭhānaṃ hoti. So ce ahaṃ, brāhmaṇa, evaṃbhūto nisīdāmi, dibbaṃ me etaṃ tasmiṃ samaye āsanaṃ hoti. So ce ahaṃ, brāhmaṇa, evaṃbhūto seyyaṃ kappemi, dibbaṃ me etaṃ tasmiṃ samaye uccāsayanamahāsayanaṃ hoti. Idaṃ kho, brāhmaṇa, dibbaṃ uccāsayanamahāsayanaṃ, yassāhaṃ etarahi nikāmalābhī akicchalābhī akasiralābhī’’ti.
Then, brahmin, when I am in such a state, if I walk back and forth, on that occasion my walking back and forth is celestial. If I am standing, on that occasion my standing is celestial. If I am sitting, on that occasion my sitting is celestial. If I lie down, on that occasion this is my celestial high and luxurious bed. This is that celestial high and luxurious bed that at present I can gain at will, without trouble or difficulty.
AN 3.63 trans BB
I'm not sure why BB translates evaṃbhūto
as "when I am in such a state", since the present participle is not used; bhūta
is the past participle of bhavati
. You can see this sense of the present perfect (see Warder p.40) being brought out very nicely in the older PTS translation -
Now, brahmin, when I have reached such a state, if I walk up and down...
Warder goes on to discuss what happens when the past participle is inflected in the nominative (such as our case here bhūto
The past participle may be equivalent to a (normally passive) finite verb in the past tense. It then
appears in the nominative case and agrees in number and gender with the agent (if active) or the patient (if passive).
appears very rarely in the Canon - elsewhere, AN 4.11, AN 4.12 and It 110 & 111 (both parallels to AN 4.11 and AN 4.12 respectively). Let's see how AN 4.11's evaṃbhūto
comes to be translated by BB verse Woodward -
Carato cepi, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno abhijjhābyāpādo vigato hoti, thinamiddhaṃ… uddhaccakukkuccaṃ… vicikicchā pahīnā hoti, āraddhaṃ hoti vīriyaṃ asallīnaṃ, upaṭṭhitā sati asammuṭṭhā, passaddho kāyo asāraddho, samāhitaṃ cittaṃ ekaggaṃ, carampi, bhikkhave, bhikkhu evaṃbhūto ‘ātāpī ottāpī satataṃ samitaṃ āraddhavīriyo pahitatto’ti vuccati.
Bhikkhus, if a sensual thought, a thought of ill will, or a thought of harming arises in a bhikkhu while walking, and he tolerates it, does not abandon it, dispel it, terminate it, and obliterate it, then that bhikkhu is said to be devoid of ardor and moral dread; he is constantly and continuously lazy and lacking in energy while walking
Monks, if while he walks there arise in a monk thoughts
sensual or malign or cruel, and that monk admits them,
does not reject and expel them, does not make an end of them,
does not drive them out of renewed existence, a monk who while
walking becomes thus is called “ void of zeal and unscrupulous,
always and for ever sluggish and poor in energy."
What Warder seems to be suggesting is that the precise demarcation of time is left very vague by the aorist (here, implied by the nominative of bhūta
) and he (p.26) suggests that if more accurate demarcations of time are required, periphrastic constructions of the main verb and participles are used. I don't see the past participle bhūta
being listed by Warder as participating as an auxillary verb, although hoti
So, is BB's translation "when I am in such a state" guided more by the Comy opinion, and less by the grammar?