Pali word of the day

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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Mon May 03, 2010 9:54 pm

Here is probably the most famous phrase in chant form for Theravada Buddhists:

Namo tassa bhagavato arahato samma sambuddhassa

(usually recited three times)

It is one of the only chants that I know of that you see in the Pali Canon where lay people are reported chanting this to the Buddha in his presence.
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Mon May 03, 2010 9:55 pm

Namo: Homage, Honour
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Mon May 03, 2010 9:56 pm

Tassa: to him
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Mon May 03, 2010 9:56 pm

Bhagavato: the worthy one
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Mon May 03, 2010 9:57 pm

Arahato: the one without any defilements
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Mon May 03, 2010 9:58 pm

SammaSambuddhassa: the fully self enlightened
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Wed May 05, 2010 12:41 am

Tanhā

lit. 'thirst': 'craving', is the chief root of suffering, and of the ever-continuing cycle of rebirths.;What, o Bhikkhus, is the origin of suffering? It is that craving which gives rise to ever-fresh rebirth and, bound up with pleasure and lust, now here, now there, finds ever fresh delight. It is the sensual craving kāma-tanhā the craving for existence bhava-tanhā the craving for non-existence vibhava-tanhā D. 22. T. is the 8th link in the formula of the dependent origination.

Corresponding to the 6 sense-objects, there are 6 kinds of craving craving for visible objects, for sounds, odours, tastes, bodily contacts, mental contacts rūpa-, sadda-, gandha-, rasa-, photthabba-, dhamma-tanhā M. 9; D. 15

Corresponding to the 3-fold existence, there are 3 kinds: craving for sensual existence kāma-tanhā for fine-material existence rūpa-tanhā for immaterial existence arūpa-tanhā D. 33

There are 18 'thought-channels of craving' tanhā-vicarita induced internally, and 18 induced externally; and as occurring in past, present and future, they total 108; see A. IV, 199; Vibh., Ch. 17 Khuddakavatthu-Vibhanga.

According to the dependent origination, craving is conditioned by feeling; on this see D. 22 section on the 2nd Truth.

Of craving for existence bhava-tanhā it is said A. X, 62:;No first beginning of the craving for existence can be perceived, o Bhikkhus, before which it was not and after which it came to be. But it can he perceived that craving for existence has its specific condition. I say, o Bhikkhus, that also craving for existence has its condition that feeds it sāharam and is not without it. And what is it? 'Ignorance', one has to reply.; - Craving for existence and ignorance are called;the outstanding causes that lead to happy and unhappy destinies courses of existence; see: Vis.M XVII, 36-42.

The most frequent synonyms of tanhā are raga and lobha.
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Wed May 05, 2010 12:49 am

In English we only have one word for 'desire' and this may be one of the reasons that some feel that all desires are bad and that one should not try to achieve anything. But there is a wholesome desire:

Chanda

Zeal, intention, desire, will.

1. As an ethically neutral psychological term, in the sense of 'intention', it is one of those general mental properties taught in the Abhidhamma, the moral quality of which is determined by the character of the intention cetanā associated therewith. The Com. explains it as 'a wish to do' kattu-kamyatā-chanda If intensified, it acts also as a 'predominance condition.'

2. As an evil quality it has the meaning of 'desire', and is frequently coupled with terms for 'sensuality', 'greed', etc., for instance:kāma-cchanda, sense-desire', one of the 5 hindrances see: nīvarana chanda-rāga 'lustful desire' see: kāma It is one of the 4 wrong paths see: agati.

But most commonly used as:

3. As a good quality it is a righteous will or alertness dhamma-chanda and occurs, e.g. in the formula of the 4 right efforts see: padhāna The Bhikkhu rouses his will chandam janeti...; If intensified, it is one of the 4 roads to power see: iddhipāda
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Wed May 05, 2010 11:24 pm

nāma-rūpa

The words for today, since it is being discussed right now in this topic: viewtopic.php?f=13&t=4277

(lit. 'name and form'): 'mind-and-body', mentality and corporeality. It is the 4th link in the dependent origination (s. paticcasamuppāda 3, 4) where it is conditioned by consciousness, and on its part is the condition of the sixfold sense-base. In two texts (D. 14, 15), which contain variations of the dependent origination, the mutual conditioning of consciousness and mind-and-body is described (see also S. XII, 67), and the latter is said to be a condition of sense-impression (phassa); so also in Sn. 872.

The third of the seven purifications (s. visuddhi), the purification of views, is defined in Vis.M. XVIII as the "correct seeing of mind-and-body," and various methods for the discernment of mind-and-body by way of insight-meditation (vipassanā, q.v.) are given there. In this context, 'mind' (nāma) comprises all four mental groups, including consciousness. - See nāma.

In five-group-existence (pañca-vokāra-bhava, q.v.), mind-and body are inseparable and interdependent; and this has been illustrated by comparing them with two sheaves of reeds propped against each other: when one falls the other will fall, too; and with a blind man with stout legs, carrying on his shoulders a lame cripple with keen eye-sight: only by mutual assistance can they move about efficiently (s. Vis.M. XVIII, 32ff). On their mutual dependence, see also paticca-samuppāda (3).

With regard to the impersonality and dependent nature of mind and corporeality it is said:
"Sound is not a thing that dwells inside the conch-shell and comes out from time to time, but due to both, the conch-shell and the man that blows it, sound comes to arise: Just so, due to the presence of vitality, heat and consciousness, this body may execute the acts of going, standing, sitting and lying down, and the 5 sense-organs and the mind may perform their various functions" (D. 23).
"Just as a wooden puppet though unsubstantial, lifeless and inactive may by means of pulling strings be made to move about, stand up, and appear full of life and activity; just so are mind and body, as such, something empty, lifeless and inactive; but by means of their mutual working together, this mental and bodily combination may move about, stand up, and appear full of life and activity."
http://www.palikanon.com/english/wtb/n_ ... _ruupa.htm
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Wed May 05, 2010 11:25 pm

Nāma

lit. 'name': 'mind', mentality. This term is generally used as a collective name for the 4 mental groups arūpino khandha viz. feeling vedanā perception saññā mental constructions sankhāra and consciousness viññāna Within the 4th link nāma-rūpa in the formula of the paticcasamuppāda, however, it applies only to kamma-resultant vipāka feeling and perception and a few kamma-resultant mental functions inseparable from any consciousness. As it is said M. 9; D. 15; S. XII, 2:;Feeling vedanā perception saññā, intention cetanā contact phassa mental directing manasikāra : this, o brother, is called mind nāma. With the addition of 2 more mental properties, namely, mental vitality jīvita and concentration samādhi here 'stationary phase of mind' cittatthiti these 7 factors are said in the Abhidhammattha Sangaha to be the inseparable mental properties in any state of consciousness.

Maha Thera Nyanatiloka. Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines, Buddhist Publication Society, first edition 1952.
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Wed May 05, 2010 11:27 pm

Rupa

'materiality'

Bhante Madawela Punnaji has translated Nama as "label" and Rupa as "Image" which is more compatible to the anatta doctrine as there is no permanence in either nama or rupa.
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Thu May 06, 2010 11:35 pm

Viññāna

'consciousness', is one of the 5 groups of existence aggregates or clusters;khandha, one of the 4 nutriments āhāra, the 3rd link of the dependent origination paticcasamuppāda, the 5th in the sixfold division of elements; dhatu.

Viewed as one of the 5 groups; khandha it is inseparably linked with the 3 other mental groups feeling, perception and constructions and furnishes the bare cognition of the object, while the other 3 contribute more specific functions. Its ethical and kammic character, and its greater or lesser degree of intensity and clarity, are chiefly determined by the mental constructions associated with it.

Just like the other groups of existence, consciousness is a flux viññāna-sotā, stream of c.' and does not constitute an abiding mind-substance; nor is it a transmigrating entity or soul. The 3 characteristies see: ti-lakkhana impermanence, suffering and no-self, are frequently applied to it in the texts e.g., in the Anattalakkhana Sutta, S.XXII, 59. The Buddha often stressed that;apart from conditions, there is no arising of consciousness' M 38; and all these statements about its nature hold good for the entire range of consciousness, be it;past, future or presently arisen, gross or subtle, in oneself or external, inferior or lofty, far or near; see: XXII, 59.

According to the 6 senses it divides into 6 kinds, viz. eye or visual consciousness cakkhu-v etc. About the dependent arising of these 6 kinds of consciousness, Vis.M XV, 39 says: 'Conditioned through the eye, the visible object, light and attention, visual-consciousness arises. Conditioned through the ear, the audible object, the ear-passage and attention, ear-consciousness arises. Conditioned, through the nose, the olfactive object, air and attention, nose-consciousness arises. Conditioned through the tongue, the gustative object, humidity and attention, tongue-consciousness arises. Condlitioned through the body, bodily contact, the earth-element and attention, body-consciousness arises. Conditioned through the subconscious mind bhavanga-mano the mental-object and attention, mind-consciousness arises

The Abhidhamma literature distinguishes 89 classes of consciousness, being either kammically advantageous, disadvantageous or neutral, and belonging either to the sense-sphere, the fine-material or the immaterial sphere, or to supra-mundane consciousness.
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby Sekha » Fri May 07, 2010 10:52 pm

Now we shall have a look to the formula describing the qualities of pure Dhamma taught by the Blessed One:

svākhāto bhagavatā dhammo sandiṭṭhiko akāliko
ehipassiko opanayiko paccattaṃ veditabbo viññūhī ti


http://ccbs.ntu.edu.tw/new/lesson/pali/ ... vanda4.htm
Last edited by Sekha on Fri May 07, 2010 11:16 pm, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby Sekha » Fri May 07, 2010 10:55 pm

svākhāto

svākhāta-, Adj.: The word ākhāta-, Adj.: proclaimed (p.p. of the verb khā-, to say with the prefix ā-, forth, out to)
with the prefix su- (well). The form sv- is due to the euphonic combination.

The Dhamma has been well proclaimed, because it has no flaws, it has been proclaimed fully and without anything missing.
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby Sekha » Fri May 07, 2010 10:57 pm

bhagavatā

bhagavant-, N.m.: Blessed One (epithet of the Buddha, possessive form of the word bhaga-, N.m.: good fortune, happiness, prosperity. The word bhaga- is derived from the verb root bhaj-, to share. Thus bhagavant means literally "having good fortune").
Ins.Sg. = bhagavatā: By the Blessed One.
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby Sekha » Fri May 07, 2010 10:59 pm

dhammo

dhamma-, N.m.: Buddha's Teaching. The Law. Derived from the verb dha-, to hold. Thus dhamma "holds the world together". Nom.Sg. = dhammo.
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby Sekha » Fri May 07, 2010 11:02 pm

sandiṭṭhiko

sandiṭṭhika-, Adj.: visible in this world. Derived from the word sandiṭṭhi-, N.f.: the visible world (futher analysed into diṭṭhi-, N.f. with the prefix saṃ-, together. The word diṭṭhi comes from the verbal root dis-, to see). The suffix -ka transforms the noun into an adjective.
Nom.Sg.m. = sandiṭṭhiko.

The Dhamma is visible in this world. We can reap the fruit in this very world, we do not have to wait for the fruits to same future life, or the other world. The results of meditation will come in this very life.
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby Sekha » Fri May 07, 2010 11:03 pm

akāliko

akālika-, Adj.: immediate. The word kālika-, Adj. (gradual, slow, delayed; it is formed from the word kāla-, N.m., time) negated by the negative prefix a-
Nom.Sg.m. = akāliko.

The Dhamma is immediate. The results of our practice will come to us immediately, we do not have to wait for them to some distant future. As we become to practice the Dhamma, the fruit will come right away. Gradually, step by step we will be able to verify that the Way truly leads to the goal.
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby Sekha » Fri May 07, 2010 11:05 pm

ehipassiko

ehipassika-, Adj.: inviting to come and see. This word has three segments:
ehi, 2.Sg.act.imp. of the verb i- (to go) with the prefix ā- (towards): come!
passi, 2.Sg.act.imp. of the verb dis- (to see): see!
-ka, the denominative suffix, transforming these verbs into an adjective.

The literal meaning therefore is "come-and-see-ish", having the quality of [saying] "come!" and "see!".
Nom.Sg.m. = ehipassiko.

The Dhamma invites us to "come and see". In other words, it invites all people to verify for themselves, that it really leads to the goal, that by practicing it, one can reach the Nirvana. It can not be forced on anybody, nobody can reach the goal just by blind faith. One must "come and see" - and make an effort on the Way to the goal.
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby Sekha » Fri May 07, 2010 11:07 pm

opanayiko

opanayika-, Adj.: leading (to the goal, that is Nirvana). Derived from the verb nī- (to lead) with the prefix upa- (close, towards).
Nom.Sg.m. = opanayiko.

The Dhamma leads to the goal. By following this teaching, by applying this method, by making an effort on the Way, we can certainly reach the goal and realize the Nirvana.
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