I am a neuropsychologist. I trained clinically and teach in academia. This is really an interesting time to be studying neuroscience and be involved in Dhamma practice, given the dialog and collaborations going on between meditators and scientists.
The Buddha really didn't talk about the brain much, if at all. But in studying neuropsychology, you will find much that echoes the Dhamma. Take for example anatta. There is no part of the brain in which the self resides. Sure if you damage the brain, it can alter the sense of self, but there's no place you can point to and say, "Yup, there it is." Rather, the self is a mental construct, and there are several systems in the brain whose activity reflects the construction of a sense of self. But it's not a thing, an object, it's an activity, a process.
When the Buddha said that repeated actions wear a groove in the mind. In the Dvedhavitakka Sutta, he said that "Whatever a monk keeps pursuing with his thinking & pondering, that becomes the inclination of his awareness." Neuropsychologists call this neuroplasticity. Repeated actions and thoughts reinforce synaptic pathways, which makes it easier to repeat that action or thought in the future.
Pretty interesting stuff.
"Dispositions of the mind, like limbs of the body, acquire strength by exercise." --Thomas Jefferson
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