CETASIKAS (MENTAL FACTORS OF CONCOMITANTS)
Cetasikas Determine the Mind
In the chapter on citta (mind), the concepts of good and evil mind have already been explained. But as the only function of the mind is to know the objects, it cannot by itself make good or evil. It arises together with different mental factors cetasikas; it becomes good or evil accordingly under the influence of good or evil mental factors. Mental factors associated with the mind induce it to become good or evil.
For example: Even though water is in itself colourless it becomes red, yellow, blue or black dye. In like manner the mind behaves. Therefore, you should next pursue the study of mental factors so that you may understand good and evil minds.
Mind can only know objects; it by itself cannot determine good and evil. It is on account of the different cetasikas (mental factors) that the mind becomes good or evil.
AKUSALA CETASIKAS (UNWHOLESOME MENTAL FACTORS)
Fourteen unwholesome mental factors that influence the mind:
1. Moha (delusion)
2. Ahirika (shameless)
3. Anottappa (utter recklessness, not having normal dread)
4. Uddhacca (distraction, restlessness)
5. Lobha (greed)
6. Ditthi (wrong view)
7. Mana (conceit)
8. Dosa (hatred, anger)
9. Issa (envy)
10. Macchariya (jealousy, selfishness)
11. Kukkucca (worry)
12. Thina (sloth)
13. Middha (torpor)
14. Vicikiccha (sceptical doubt)
Cetana is Kamma
The Buddha says that cetana is kamma; volition is ethical action whether good or bad in daily life, cetana; volition is the chief. Let us assume a man was brutally attack and killed by a mob. In this atrocious deed, the blows of the most attackers were ineffective; only one member of the mob, prompted by a strong will, cruelly gave blow after blow which resulted in the victim's death. So only this man will be the culprit of the murder. Like wise a number of combinations of citta-cetasika function together in both kusala kamma (good actions) such as making of offering (dana) or observance of precept (sila) and akusala kamma (bad actions) such as killing (panatipata). In such activities it is the strong cetana (will) which is the most potent and post responsible and which determines your destiny and appropriate results here or hereafter.
Cetana (volition) is the strongest force in the world, prompting or encouraging all kinds of kamma (actions) and their effects. Cetana is the true motive force of all kamma actions; hence the saying, "Cetana is the maker, the true culprit of kamma actions."
Therefore the Buddha explicitly taught, "Cetanaham Bhikkhave kammam vadami - O Bhikkhus! I declare that cetana (will) to be kamma (action)." So a strong will makes a robust kamma, moral or immoral. If your will is feeble your action is also week.
CARITA (NATURE, CHARACTER OR HABITUAL CONDUCT)
Carita is a predominant nature in one's behavioral pattern.
Carita is of six types:
1. Raga carita (the greedy or passionate nature)
2. Dosa carita (the angry nature)
3. Moha carita (the deluded nature)
4. Saddha carita (the faithful nature)
5. Buddhi carita (the intelligent nature)
6. Vitakka carita (the ruminating or pondering nature)
The first three are bad tendencies and the later three are good. A person can have one or a mixture of two or three caritas.
How to Judge A Person's Carita
One can generally identify a person's carita by watching attentively his gestures and movements, his style of living, the food he likes and his behavioural pattern. Person with raga carita and those with saddha carita display common carita and those with buddhi carita. And persons with moha carita and those with vitakka carita are similar in nature.
Person with Raga Carita and Saddha Carita
Both persons are usually gentle and polite. They are generally clean, neat and tidy. They prefer sweet, aromatic and tender food. Yet there are vast differences between these two characters. The one with raga carita, the lustful one has attachement to five sensual pleasures. He is wily, cunning, proud and greedy. On the contrary, the one with saddha carita, is more truthful and honest. He is generous in nature, and hence is liberal in charity. He is more or less pious, reveres the Three Jewels and enjoying listening to Dhamma discourses.
Both raga carita and saddha carita person are civilised and are fond of luxury. But the former is greedy, staingy, lustful and cunning while the latter is liberal, generous, devoted and pious.
Person with Dosa Carita and Buddhi
Both types are crude and unbecoming in department. They are usually slipshod and untidy. Both types live lour, salty, bitter or pungent food. They cannot understand sights and sounds. They always react with abusive words, hatred, violence, and wrath. So the dosa dominant person and the buddhi dominant person have common characteristics which become their second nature. (until such tiles as when they begin to reform).
Yet they differ vastly in many respects. The dosa carita person always shows grudge, revenge, envy, jealousy, slander, pride and stubbornness. The buddhi carita person is the opposite pole of the dosa domaint. He is free from grudge, jealousy and is amenable to good advice. He does everything with mindfulness and wisdom. He is quite aware of the coming existences and so is fond of doing good deeds for fulfilment of paramis.
A dosa dominant person is crude in manner, untidy and undisciplined, loves pungent food and reacts violently to ugly visual forms, and unpleasant sounds. A buddhi dominant person is free from the evils of the dosa carita. He is ready to learn from the wise and is generally mindful. He is farsighted and fond of virtuous deeds.
Person with Moha Carita and Vitakka Carita
A moha based person is associated with ignorance, delusion and forgetfulness. He is usually perplexed and confused. He cannot distinguished between right and wrong, good and bad. He is incapable of making his own judgements, so follows the opinion of others in denouncing or praising some one. Since he is devoid of sati and panna (wisdom) he waste his time by being lazy, indolent and sceptic. He is the victim of sloth and torpor.
Like moha carita, the vitakka carita person also lives in the way of uncertainty and scepticism. He is indolent and incapable of doing moral deeds. He flocks with those of the same feather. He indulges in useless babbles, speculations and imaginations, so he becomes a useless person, squandering his time in vain.
A moha dominant person is generally idle, confused and deluded. He cannot differentiate vice from virtue and right from wrong. He lacks of power of judgement and is void of sati and panna. As for vitakka person he is incapable of doing moral deeds being very lazy. He talks away his precious times and does nothing substantial.
The Origin of Carita
Carita distinguished one person from another, people differ in outlook, attitude, habit and tendency. Why? In the previous existences if his deeds were mostly influenced by greed, then kamma and vipaka cause him to be raga dominant. If dosa was significant in his deeds in the past lives his tendency in the present existence would be one of dosa carita. If ignorance accompanied his kamma in the past lives, now the result will be a moha dominant person. If a person loved wisdom in the past and did meritorious deeds pertaining to panna, he will now be reborn as a buddhi carita person.
In the same fashion, deeds accompanied by saddha and vitaka will correspondingly result in saddha carita and vitakka carita. Thus we can now see that past deeds are the root cause of present carita. We ought, therefore, to perform meritorious deeds accompanied by saddha and panna so as to acquire good caritas in the next existences
KAMMA (ACTION AND DEED)
WHAT IS KAMMA?
KAMMA MEANS ACTION or deed. Kamma is of three kinds: thought, word and physical action.
Whatever you do with your limbs is kaya kamma (physical deed). Take for instance killing some being or giving charity, etc.
Verbal kamma means the words that you utter. Imperatives such as "Kill that animal" or "Offer alms to the monk", are verbal kamma. Other forms of exhortions, lying, preaching, all fall into this category.
Mental kamma means the thoughts that occur in your mind, short of physical action and utterances by mouth. Evil thoughts such as "How I wish all property were mine" are mental kamma. Pity, compassion, sympathy, appreciative joy, practising bhavana meditation are also different forms of mental kamma.
The three forms of kamma do not occur automatically. For instance, in the act of killing the hand gets hold of the dagger. There is bound to be a prompting force makes you to utter certain words. While you are asleep there occurs no mental kamma even though many units of consciousness are arising. We now come to the conclusion therefore, that there must be a force, a potency which is different from the basic mind; and this force, is the culprit of the three kamma actions. Just as there is always a culprit in every crime, there is a potency or a force that impels three forms of deeds.
Cetana is the Culprit
The culprit which prompts the three kamma actions is nothing but the mental concomitant, cetana cetasika which occurs in the mind-continuum of beings. This cetana is the busiest, the most active of all cetasikas. Because cetana impels to perform a certain deed, because cetana is responsible for the completion of every kamma action, cetana is commonly called kamma.
ABHIDHAMMA IN DAILY LIFE by Janakabhivamsa, Ashin
Just to clarify the notion of kamma.