Pali Term: Appamāṇa

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Dmytro
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Pali Term: Appamāṇa

Postby Dmytro » Sun Aug 29, 2010 8:15 pm

(recovered from E-Sangha cache)

Hello Pali friends,

Epithet of four «divine abidings» (brahma vihara) "appamaa.na" is usually translated as "immeasurable", "boundless", taking the meaning of "pama.na" as "size".

However the authoritative commentaries explain that in this case ‘pama.na’ means "criterion".

Appama~n~naati pamaa.na.m agahetvaa anavasesaphara.navasena appama~n~naava.

(Pathikavagga-Atthakatha 3.1008)

Appamaa.nanti ida.m tassa tassa phara.na-appamaa.navasena vutta.m. Ta~nhi cetasaa pharanto sakalameva pharati, na “ ayamassa aadi, ida.m majjhan ” ti pamaa.na.m ga.nhaatiiti.

(Pathikavagga-Atthakatha 3.1048)

One does not take (na … ga.nhaati, agahetvaa) criterion (pamaa.na) on which someone one goes first (aadi), and someone in the middle (majjha.m). He distributes (pharati) [friendliness, the compassion, empathizing pleasure and serene observation] to all (sakala.m) without remainder (anavasesa), unconditionally.

As Karaniya Metta sutta says:

Whatever beings there may be,
weak or strong, without exception,
long, large,
middling, short,
subtle, blatant,
seen & unseen,
near & far,
born & seeking birth:
May all beings be happy at heart.

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka ... .than.html

Metta, Dmytro

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Re: Pali Term: Appamāṇa

Postby Dmytro » Mon Aug 30, 2010 6:35 am

Geoff Shatz writes:

Related to this is a distinction between the “limited mind” (parittacetasa) and the “measureless mind” (appamāṇacetasa) found in a number of discourses (cf. S iv 119, S iv 186, S iv 189, S iv 199, & MN 38: Mahātaṇhāsaṅkhayasutta). For example, SN 35.202 (S iv 186): Avassutapariyāyasutta


Idhāvuso, bhikkhu cakkhunā rūpaṃ disvā piyarūpe rūpe adhimuccati, appiyarūpe rūpe byāpajjati, anupaṭṭhitakāyassati viharati parittacetaso, tañca cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ yathābhūtaṃ nappajānāti yatthassa te uppannā pāpakā akusalā dhammā aparisesā nirujjhanti …pe… jivhāya rasaṃ sāyitvā…pe… manasā dhammaṃ viññāya piyarūpe dhamme adhimuccati, appiyarūpe dhamme byāpajjati, anupaṭṭhitakāyassati ca viharati parittacetaso, tañca cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ yathābhūtaṃ nappajānāti yatthassa te uppannā pāpakā akusalā dhammā aparisesā nirujjhanti.

[…]

Evaṃvihāriñcāvuso, bhikkhuṃ rūpā adhibhaṃsu, na bhikkhu rūpe adhibhosi; saddā bhikkhuṃ adhibhaṃsu, na bhikkhu sadde adhibhosi; gandhā bhikkhuṃ adhibhaṃsu, na bhikkhu gandhe adhibhosi; rasā bhikkhuṃ adhibhaṃsu, na bhikkhu rase adhibhosi; phoṭṭhabbā bhikkhuṃ adhibhaṃsu, na bhikkhu phoṭṭhabbe adhibhosi ; dhammā bhikkhuṃ adhibhaṃsu, na bhikkhu dhamme adhibhosi. Ayaṃ vuccatāvuso, bhikkhu rūpādhibhūto, saddādhibhūto, gandhādhibhūto, rasādhibhūto, phoṭṭhabbādhibhūto, dhammādhibhūto, adhibhūto, anadhibhū, [anadhibhūto (sī. syā. kaṃ. ka.)] adhibhaṃsu naṃ pāpakā akusalā dhammā saṃkilesikā ponobbhavikā sadarā dukkhavipākā āyatiṃ jātijarāmaraṇiyā.

[…]

Idhāvuso, bhikkhu cakkhunā rūpaṃ disvā piyarūpe rūpe nādhimuccati, appiyarūpe rūpe na byāpajjati, upaṭṭhitakāyassati ca viharati appamāṇacetaso, tañca cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti yatthassa te uppannā pāpakā akusalā dhammā aparisesā nirujjhanti…pe… jivhāya rasaṃ sāyitvā…pe… manasā dhammaṃ viññāya piyarūpe dhamme nādhimuccati, appiyarūpe dhamme na byāpajjati, upaṭṭhitakāyassati ca viharati appamāṇacetaso, tañca cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti yatthassa te uppannā pāpakā akusalā dhammā aparisesā nirujjhanti.

[…]

Evaṃvihārī cāvuso, bhikkhu rūpe adhibhosi, na rūpā bhikkhuṃ adhibhaṃsu; sadde bhikkhu adhibhosi, na saddā bhikkhuṃ adhibhaṃsu; gandhe bhikkhu adhibhosi, na gandhā bhikkhuṃ adhibhaṃsu; rase bhikkhu adhibhosi, na rasā bhikkhuṃ adhibhaṃsu; phoṭṭhabbe bhikkhu adhibhosi, na phoṭṭhabbā bhikkhuṃ adhibhaṃsu; dhamme bhikkhu adhibhosi, na dhammā bhikkhuṃ adhibhaṃsu. Ayaṃ vuccatāvuso, bhikkhu rūpādhibhū, saddādhibhū, gandhādhibhū, rasādhibhū, phoṭṭhabbādhibhū, dhammādhibhū, adhibhū, anadhibhūto [anadhibhūto kehici kilesehi (ka.)], adhibhosi te pāpake akusale dhamme saṃkilesike ponobbhavike sadare dukkhavipāke āyatiṃ jātijarāmaraṇiye.


Ven. Ṭhānissaro translates as: “There is the case where a monk, when seeing a form via the eye, is, in the case of pleasing forms, committed to forms and, in the case of displeasing forms, afflicted by forms. He remains with body-mindfulness not present, and with limited awareness. And he does not discern, as it actually is present, the awareness-release & discernment-release where those evil, unskillful qualities that have arisen cease without trace.

“ When hearing a sound via the ear ...When smelling an aroma via the nose...When tasting a flavor via the tongue...When touching a tactile sensation via the body...

“ When cognizing an idea via the intellect, he is, in the case of pleasing ideas, committed to ideas and, in the case of displeasing ideas, afflicted by ideas. He remains with body-mindfulness not present, and with limited awareness. And he does not discern, as it actually is present, the awareness-release & discernment-release where those evil, unskillful qualities that have arisen cease without trace.

[…]

“ And when a monk dwells in this way, forms overpower him. He does not overpower forms. Sounds overpower him... Aromas... Flavors... Tactile sensations... Ideas overpower him. He does not overpower ideas. This is called a monk overpowered by forms, overpowered by sounds, overpowered by aromas, overpowered by flavors, overpowered by tactile sensations, overpowered by ideas — one overpowered who does not overpower. He is overpowered by evil, unskillful qualities that defile, that lead to further becoming, that are miserable, that result in suffering & stress, that tend toward future birth, aging, & death.

[…]

“ There is the case where a monk, when seeing a form via the eye, is not, in the case of pleasing forms, committed to forms nor, in the case of displeasing forms, afflicted by forms. He remains with body-mindfulness present, and with immeasurable awareness. And he discerns, as it actually is present, the awareness-release & discernment-release where those evil, unskillful qualities that have arisen cease without trace.

“ When hearing a sound via the ear ...When smelling an aroma via the nose...When tasting a flavor via the tongue...When touching a tactile sensation via the body...

“ When cognizing an idea via the intellect, he is not, in the case of pleasing ideas, committed to ideas nor, in the case of displeasing ideas, afflicted by ideas. He remains with body-mindfulness present, and with immeasurable awareness. And he discerns, as it actually is present, the awareness-release & discernment-release where those evil, unskillful qualities that have arisen cease without trace.

[…]

“ And when a monk dwells in this way, he overpowers forms. Forms do not overpower him. He overpowers sounds... aromas... flavors... tactile sensations... ideas. Ideas do not overpower him. This is called a monk who overpowers forms, overpowers sounds, overpowers aromas, overpowers flavors, overpowers tactile sensations, overpowers ideas — one who overpowers and is not overpowered. He overpowers evil, unskillful qualities that defile, that lead to further becoming, that are miserable, that result in suffering & stress, that tend toward future birth, aging, & death.”

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Dmytro
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Re: Pali Term: Appamāṇa

Postby Dmytro » Mon Aug 30, 2010 6:37 am

Geoff Shatz writes:

MN 38: Mahātaṇhāsaṅkhayasutta gives a very good outline of how appamāṇacetasa relates to sense restraint (not grasping nimitta-s) and jhāna.

‘‘So cakkhunā rūpaṃ disvā piyarūpe rūpe na sārajjati, appiyarūpe rūpe na byāpajjati, upaṭṭhitakāyasati ca viharati appamāṇacetaso. Tañca cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti – yatthassa te pāpakā akusalā dhammā aparisesā nirujjhanti. So evaṃ anurodhavirodhavippahīno yaṃ kiñci vedanaṃ vedeti, sukhaṃ vā dukkhaṃ vā adukkhamasukhaṃ vā, so taṃ vedanaṃ nābhinandati nābhivadati nājjhosāya tiṭṭhati. Tassa taṃ vedanaṃ anabhinandato anabhivadato anajjhosāya tiṭṭhato yā vedanāsu nandī sā nirujjhati. Tassa nandīnirodhā upādānanirodho, upādānanirodhā bhavanirodho, bhavanirodhā jātinirodho, jātinirodhā jarāmaraṇaṃ sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā nirujjhanti. Evametassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa nirodho hoti.

"On seeing a form with the eye he does not become greedy for pleasant forms, or averse to disagreeable forms. He abides with mindfulness of the body established and with a immeasurable mind. He knows the deliverance of mind and the deliverance through wisdom as it really is, where unwholesome states cease completely. Having abandoned the path of agreeing and disagreeing, he experiences whatever feeling that arises - pleasant, unpleasant, or neither unpleasant nor pleasant - just as it is. He is not delighted or pleased with those feelings and he does not appropriates them. Interest in those feelings ceases. With the cessation of interest, clinging ceases. With no clinging, there is no becoming; no becoming, no birth; with no birth, there is no old age, sickness or death, no grief, lament, unpleasantness, displeasure or distress. Thus ceases the complete mass of dukkha.

Sotena saddaṃ sutvā…pe… ghānena gandhaṃ ghāyitvā…pe… jivhāya rasaṃ sāyitvā…pe… kāyena phoṭṭhabbaṃ phusitvā…pe… manasā dhammaṃ viññāya piyarūpe dhamme na sārajjati, appiyarūpe dhamme na byāpajjati, upaṭṭhitakāyasati ca viharati appamāṇacetaso, tañca cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti – yatthassa te pāpakā akusalā dhammā aparisesā nirujjhanti. So evaṃ anurodhavirodhavippahīno yaṃ kiñci vedanaṃ vedeti, sukhaṃ vā dukkhaṃ vā adukkhamasukhaṃ vā, so taṃ vedanaṃ nābhinandati nābhivadati nājjhosāya tiṭṭhati. Tassa taṃ vedanaṃ anabhinandato anabhivadato anajjhosāya tiṭṭhato yā vedanāsu nandī sā nirujjhati. Tassa nandīnirodhā upādānanirodho, upādānanirodhā bhavanirodho, bhavanirodhā jātinirodho, jātinirodhā jarāmaraṇaṃ sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā nirujjhanti. Evametassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa nirodho hoti.

"On hearing a sound with the ear, smelling a smell with the nose, tasting a taste with the tongue, feeling a touch with the body, thinking a thought with the mind, he does not become greedy for pleasant experiences, or averse to disagreeable ones. He abides with mindfulness of the body established and with a immeasurable mind. He knows the deliverance of mind and the deliverance through wisdom as it really is, where unwholesome states cease completely. Having abandoned the path of agreeing and disagreeing, he experiences whatever feeling that arises - pleasant, unpleasant, or neither unpleasant nor pleasant - just as it is. He is not delighted or pleased with those feelings and he does not appropriates them. Interest in those feelings ceases. With the cessation of interest, clinging ceases. With no clinging, there is no becoming; no becoming, no birth; with no birth, there is no old age, sickness or death, no grief, lament, unpleasantness, displeasure or distress. Thus ceases the complete mass of dukkha.

http://leighb.com/mn38.htm


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