Pali Term: Mano

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Pali Term: Mano

Postby Dmytro » Sat Sep 04, 2010 6:05 am

On one hand, mano supervises the spheres of other senses:

"... mano nesa.m gocara-visaya.m paccanubhoti"

"mano enjoys the function-spheres of the other senses"

Mahavedalla sutta M. I.295

and on the other hand, it uses the memory:

“Manassa pana, bho gotama, ki.m pa.tisara.nan”ti? “manassa kho, braahma.na, sati pa.tisaran”ti.

Unnabha-brahmana sutta, S. V.217

To understand better the function of 'mano', it is necessary to remember Samkhya model, where 'mano' is an integrative faculty for five other senses, which uses the accumulation of previous experience (ahamkara). (See Samkhya chart in attachment to this message).

Besides these there is also a sixth ('mental') sense:

* mano-vijñana: thought-consciousness or intellect, the consciousness of psychic formations which also includes the psychic activities of vedana (perception); samjña (cognition); and samskara (volition).

Mano-vijñana than functions as the centralizing factor for thought and experience, but not without the interaction (feed-back) with the other consciousness aspects. This stage of consciousness is the working of discursive, conceptual, discriminative thought, which not only processes data from the 'outside' according to a 'manas' program, but which also continuously adds its 'own interpretation' to this experiential data.


http://www.akshin.net/philosophy/budphilyogacara.htm


From a good article on Samkhya by Dan Lusthaus:

The empirical mind (manas) interprets the sensorium, coordinating the discrete sense fields (audition, vision, etc.) into coherent experience.


http://www.acmuller.net/yogacara/school ... ya-uni.htm


Mano synthesizes the data of five senses and former experience together, creating a model of reality, in the light of which new data are interpreted by recognition (saññā).

The noun 'mano' corresponds to the verb "maññati" (Vedic manyate, manute) - deem, imagine, consider.

Abhidharmakosa:

"Citta is so named because it accumulates (cinoti); named manas because it knows (manute); named vij~naana because it distinguishes its object (aalambana.m vijaanaati).


http://www.buddhismtoday.com/english/ph ... efence.htm

This leads to conclusion the function of mano is to construct in imagination a mental model of sphere where attention is focused.
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Re: Pali Term: Mano

Postby Dmytro » Sun Sep 05, 2010 5:35 am

The 'dukkha' is of two kinds - kaayika and cetasika.

Arahants experience only 'kaayika', but not 'cetasika' dukkha:
http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka ... .than.html

And the 'cetasika dukkha' stems from the contact (phassa) of 'mano':

"Katama~nca, bhikkhave, dukkha.m? Ya.m kho, bhikkhave, kaayika.m dukkha.m kaayika.m asaata.m kaayasamphassaja.m dukkha.m asaata.m vedayita.m, ida.m vuccati, bhikkhave, dukkha.m.

"Katama~nca, bhikkhave, domanassa.m? Ya.m kho, bhikkhave, cetasika.m dukkha.m cetasika.m asaata.m manosamphassaja.m dukkha.m asaata.m vedayita.m, ida.m vuccati, bhikkhave, domanassa.m.

(Mahasatipatthana sutta)

So 'mano' plays a key role in how much one suffers.

The commentary to the first verse of Dhammapada,

Manopubba"ngamaa dhammaa, manose.t.thaa manomayaa;
manasaa ce padu.t.thena, bhaasati vaa karoti vaa;
tato na.m dukkhamanveti, cakka.mva vahato pada.m.

Dhammapada-Atthakatha explains that 'dhammaa' is here the mental processes - recognition (sa~n~naa), feeling (vedanaa) and intention (sa"nkhaara):

Dhammaati gu.nadesanaapariyattinissattanijjiivavasena cattaaro dhammaa naama. Tesu–

“Na hi dhammo adhammo ca, ubho samavipaakino;
adhammo niraya.m neti, dhammo paapeti suggatin”ti. (theragaa. 304; jaa. 1.15.386)–

Aya.m gu.nadhammo naama. “Dhamma.m vo, bhikkhave, desessaami aadikalyaa.nan”ti (ma. ni. 3.420) aya.m desanaadhammo naama. “Idha pana, bhikkhave, ekacce kulaputtaa dhamma.m pariyaapu.nanti sutta.m geyyan”ti (ma. ni. 1.239) aya.m pariyattidhammo naama. “Tasmi.m kho pana samaye dhammaa honti, khandhaa hontii”ti (dha. sa. 121) aya.m nissattadhammo naama, nijjiivadhammotipi eso eva. Tesu imasmi.m .thaane nissattanijjiivadhammo adhippeto. So atthato tayo aruupino khandhaa vedanaakkhandho sa~n~naakkhandho sa"nkhaarakkhandhoti.

Atthakatha explains the relation of 'mano' to mental processes as 'condition of arising' (uppaadapaccaya):

Ete hi mano pubba"ngamo etesanti manopubba"ngamaa naama.

Katha.m panetehi saddhi.m ekavatthuko ekaaramma.no apubba.m acarima.m ekakkha.ne uppajjamaano mano pubba"ngamo naama hotiiti? Uppaadapaccaya.t.thena. Yathaa hi bahuusu ekato gaamaghaataadiini kammaani karontesu “ko etesa.m pubba"ngamo”ti vutte yo nesa.m paccayo hoti, ya.m nissaaya te ta.m kamma.m karonti, so datto vaa mitto vaa tesa.m pubba"ngamoti vuccati, eva.msampadamida.m veditabba.m. Iti uppaadapaccaya.t.thena mano pubba"ngamo etesanti manopubba"ngamaa. Na hi te mane anuppajjante uppajjitu.m sakkonti, mano pana ekaccesu cetasikesu anupajjantesupi uppajjatiyeva. Adhipativasena pana mano se.t.tho etesanti manose.t.tho. Yathaa hi coraadiina.m coraje.t.thakaadayo adhipatino se.t.thaa. Tathaa tesampi mano adhipati manova se.t.thaa. Yathaa pana daaru-aadiihi nipphannaani taani taani bha.n.daani daarumayaadiini naama honti, tathaa tepi manato nipphannattaa manomayaa naama.

One can see how 'mano' conditions mental processes, on the chart of dependent co-arising
http://dhamma.ru/lib/paticcas.htm

since mano is one of the sixth ayatanas, which produce phassa, and henceforth mental processes.

'Sukha' and 'Dukkha', about which the first Dhammapada verses are about, are two kinds of 'vedanaa', which are conditioned by work of 'mano'.
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Re: Pali Term: Mano

Postby Dmytro » Tue Sep 07, 2010 6:39 am

Another explanation of the role of 'mano' in creating suffering, through conceiving things not as they are, and making superfluous conjectures, can be found in the suttas:

2. “Idha, bhikkhave, assutavaa puthujjano ariyaana.m adassaavii ariyadhammassa akovido ariyadhamme aviniito, sappurisaana.m adassaavii sappurisadhammassa akovido sappurisadhamme aviniito– pathavi.m pathavito sa~njaanaati; pathavi.m pathavito sa~n~natvaa pathavi.m ma~n~nati, pathaviyaa ma~n~nati, pathavito ma~n~nati, pathavi.m meti ma~n~nati, pathavi.m abhinandati. Ta.m kissa hetu? ‘Apari~n~naata.m tassaa’ti vadaami.

The Blessed One said: "There is the case, monks, where an uninstructed run-of-the-mill person — who has no regard for noble ones, is not well-versed or disciplined in their Dhamma; who has no regard for men of integrity, is not well-versed or disciplined in their Dhamma — perceives earth as earth. Perceiving earth as earth, he conceives [things] about earth, he conceives [things] in earth, he conceives [things] coming out of earth, he conceives earth as 'mine,' he delights in earth. Why is that? Because he has not comprehended it, I tell you.


http://www.accesstoinsight.org/canon/su ... 1-tb0.html


“Iti kho, bhikkhave, tathaagato da.t.thaa da.t.thabba.m, di.t.tha.m na ma~n~nati, adi.t.tha.m na ma~n~nati, da.t.thabba.m na ma~n~nati, da.t.thaara.m na ma~n~nati;

"Thus, monks, the Tathagata, when seeing what is to be seen, doesn't construe an [object as] seen. He doesn't construe an unseen. He doesn't construe an [object] to-be-seen. He doesn't construe a seer.


http://www.accesstoinsight.org/canon/su ... 4-024.html


The widely known instructions to Bahiya:

"Then, Bahiya, you should train yourself thus: In reference to the seen, there will be only the seen. In reference to the heard, only the heard. In reference to the sensed, only the sensed. In reference to the cognized, only the cognized. That is how you should train yourself. When for you there will be only the seen in reference to the seen, only the heard in reference to the heard, only the sensed in reference to the sensed, only the cognized in reference to the cognized, then, Bahiya, there is no you in terms of that. When there is no you in terms of that, there is no you there. When there is no you there, you are neither here nor yonder nor between the two. This, just this, is the end of stress."


http://www.accesstoinsight.org/canon/su ... d1-10.html


are followed by instructions that conjecturing is to be eradicated towards the matrix of paticca-samuppada, with six channels as one dimension and
- internal ayatana itself;
- external ayatana;
- vi~n~naa.na;
- samphassa;
- vedana;
as second dimension.

Pa.thama-ejaasutta.m

“Ejaa, bhikkhave, rogo, ejaa ga.n.do, ejaa salla.m. tasmaatiha, bhikkhave, tathaagato anejo viharati viitasallo. tasmaatiha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu cepi aaka"nkheyya ‘anejo vihareyya.m viitasallo’ti, cakkhu.m na ma~n~neyya, cakkhusmi.m na ma~n~neyya, cakkhuto na ma~n~neyya, cakkhu meti na ma~n~neyya; ruupe na ma~n~neyya, ruupesu na ma~n~neyya, ruupato na ma~n~neyya, ruupaa meti na ma~n~neyya; cakkhuvi~n~naa.na.m na ma~n~neyya, cakkhuvi~n~naa.nasmi.m na ma~n~neyya, cakkhuvi~n~naa.nato na ma~n~neyya, cakkhuvi~n~naa.na.m meti na ma~n~neyya; cakkhusamphassa.m na ma~n~neyya, cakkhusamphassasmi.m na ma~n~neyya, cakkhusamphassato na ma~n~neyya, cakkhusamphasso meti na ma~n~neyya. Yampida.m cakkhusamphassapaccayaa uppajjati vedayita.m sukha.m vaa dukkha.m vaa adukkhamasukha.m vaa tampi na ma~n~neyya, tasmimpi na ma~n~neyya, tatopi na ma~n~neyya, ta.m meti na ma~n~neyya.

“Sota.m na ma~n~neyya …pe… ghaana.m na ma~n~neyya …pe… jivha.m na ma~n~neyya, jivhaaya na ma~n~neyya, jivhaato na ma~n~neyya, jivhaa meti na ma~n~neyya; rase na ma~n~neyya …pe… jivhaavi~n~naa.na.m na ma~n~neyya …pe… jivhaasamphassa.m na ma~n~neyya …pe… yampida.m jivhaasamphassapaccayaa uppajjati vedayita.m sukha.m vaa dukkha.m vaa adukkhamasukha.m vaa tampi na ma~n~neyya, tasmimpi na ma~n~neyya, tatopi na ma~n~neyya, ta.m meti na ma~n~neyya.

“Kaaya.m na ma~n~neyya …pe… mana.m na ma~n~neyya, manasmi.m na ma~n~neyya, manato na ma~n~neyya, mano meti na ma~n~neyya; dhamme na ma~n~neyya …pe… mano vi~n~naa.na.m …pe… manosamphassa.m …pe… yampida.m manosamphassapaccayaa uppajjati vedayita.m sukha.m vaa dukkha.m vaa adukkhamasukha.m vaa tampi na ma~n~neyya, tasmimpi na ma~n~neyya, tatopi na ma~n~neyya, ta.m meti na ma~n~neyya; sabba.m na ma~n~neyya, sabbasmi.m na ma~n~neyya, sabbato na ma~n~neyya, sabba.m meti na ma~n~neyya.

“So eva.m ama~n~namaano na ki~ncipi loke upaadiyati. Anupaadiya.m na paritassati. Aparitassa.m paccatta~n~neva parinibbaayati. ‘Khii.naa jaati, vusita.m brahmacariya.m, kata.m kara.niiya.m naapara.m itthatttayaa'ti pajaanaatii'ti.

SN 4.64
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Re: Pali Term: Mano

Postby Dmytro » Tue Sep 07, 2010 3:08 pm

It's not quite clear from conditioned arising itself where the 'dhammaa' as supports (aaramma.na) of 'mano' come from.

Mulapariyaya sutta (MN 1) gives a hint:

2. “Idha, bhikkhave, assutavaa puthujjano ariyaana.m adassaavii ariyadhammassa akovido ariyadhamme aviniito, sappurisaana.m adassaavii sappurisadhammassa akovido sappurisadhamme aviniito– pathavi.m pathavito sa~njaanaati; pathavi.m pathavito sa~n~natvaa pathavi.m ma~n~nati, pathaviyaa ma~n~nati, pathavito ma~n~nati, pathavi.m meti ma~n~nati, pathavi.m abhinandati.



The results of recognition (sa~n~naa) are evidently fed back to 'mano', which can run afoul with superfluous conjectures, including the conjecture of "self". In this regard it is akin to "mental accretion" - 'papa~nca'.
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