Pali Term: Dhamma

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Pali Term: Dhamma

Postby Dmytro » Sat Sep 11, 2010 9:24 am

A good place to start here is a comprehensive article:

Traditional definitions of the term dhamma
By John Ross Carter

http://ccbs.ntu.edu.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-PHIL/carter.htm

Pali commentaries give four main meanings of the word 'dhamma':

gu.na - moral quality or action;
desanaa - preaching & instruction;
pariyatti - 9-fold collection of Buddhist scriptures;
nissatta, nijjiiva -- three aruupa-khandhaa: vedanaa, sa~n~naa,
sa'nkhaara (which constitute citta).

Dhammaati gu.na-desanaa-pariyatti-nissattanijjiivavasena cattaaro
dhammaa naama. Tesu-
"Na hi dhammo adhammo ca, ubho samavipaakino;
adhammo niraya.m neti, dhammo paapeti suggatin"ti.
(theragaa. 304; jaa. 1.15.386)-
Aya.m gu.nadhammo naama. "Dhamma.m vo, bhikkhave, desessaami
aadikalyaa.nan"ti (ma. ni. 3.420) aya.m desanaadhammo naama. "Idha
pana, bhikkhave, ekacce kulaputtaa dhamma.m pariyaapu.nanti sutta.m
geyyan"ti (ma. ni. 1.239) aya.m pariyattidhammo naama. "Tasmi.m kho
pana samaye dhammaa honti, khandhaa hontii"ti (dha. sa. 121) aya.m
nissattadhammo naama, nijjiivadhammotipi eso eva. Tesu imasmi.m
.thaane nissattanijjiivadhammo adhippeto. So atthato tayo aruupino
khandhaa vedanaakkhandho sa~n~naakkhandho sa'nkhaarakkhandhoti.

Dhammapada-Atthakatha 1.22

Mr. Rhys-Davids also mentions these four in his dictionary entry on dhamma,
yet the fourth meaning remains unclear. Yet according to the commentaries,
this is the meaning associated with the fourth frame of reference.

Mr. Rhys-Davids writes that it is (4) nissatta-nijiivataa, or "the
phenomenal" as opposed to "the substantial", "the noumenal",
"animistic entity". What does it mean in the context of fourth frame
of reference?

In the third frame of reference the practitioner explores the states
of mind as a whole, but in the fourth frame of reference he explores
the internal dynamics of the constituent parts of the mind, rise and
fall of particular mental factors and phenomena.

Therefore in my opinion the translation 'internal processes of the
mind' would be to the point.

Another option is 'mental qualities', since in the context of the fourth frame of reference "dhamma" refers first and foremost to the seven
factors of awakening and five hindrances. In most authoritative
Vibhanga 199 only these seven plus five are mentioned in the
Dhammaanupassanaaniddeso.

In my opinion calling these factors and hindrances "states" isn't
correct, since they can be present simultaneously, and can be
manifested only in specific occasions. A person with greed doesn't
walk around in a "state" of greed: greed is manifested in specific
occasions.

Secondly, calling these "mind-objects" is too wide a definition, since
here we are talking exactly about factors of Awakening and hindrances.

Even when we read the fourth tetrad of Anapanasati sutta, dealing with
the fourth frame of reference, there is again a clear connection with
abandoning greed and distress through equanimity, which also can be
classified as hindrances and factors of Awakening.

Metta, Dmytro

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Re: Pali Term: Dhamma

Postby Dmytro » Sat Sep 11, 2010 9:25 am

Nina van Gorkom writes:


To recapitulate: the first meaning is gu.na, virtue or good quality. In different commentaries this is explained as kusala kamma different from akusala kamma. Kusala kamma is denoted as dhamma and akusala kamma is denoted as adhamma. We read in the Atthasaalinii, 38:

"Na hi dhammo adhammo ca, ubho samavipaakino;
dhamma, adhamma bear no equal fruit:

adhammo niraya.m neti, dhammo paapeti suggatin"ti.
adhamma leads to hell, dhamma causes one to reach heaven.
(theragaa. 304; jaa. 1.15.386)-

The second meaning given of dhamma is pariyatti: the wording of the teachings as contained in the Tipitaka. We read in the "Dhammapada Atthakataa 1.22:

Dhamma.m vo, bhikkhave, desessaami aadikalyaa.nan"ti (ma. ni. 3.420)
aya.m desanaadhammo naama.
I shall teach you, monks, Dhamma that is beautiful in the beginning (middle
and end), this is the dhamma of teaching.

"Idha pana, bhikkhave, ekacce kulaputtaa dhamma.m pariyaapu.nanti sutta.m
geyyan"ti (ma. ni. 1.239)
Here, monks, some young men of good family learn thoroughly the dhamma: sutta,
geyya, etc.

aya.m pariyattidhammo naama.
This is the dhamma which is the wording of the teachings.

My remarks:The word of the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Vinaya as taught by
him, consists of nine divisions which are: Sutta, Geyya, Veyyaakarana, Gaathaa, Udaana, Itivuttaka, Jaataka, Abbhuta and Vedalla.

See the "Expositor", Atthasaalinii, Introductory Discourse, 26. The teachings as compiled (not yet written) literature are thus enumerated in the scriptures as nine divisions, for example in the "Middle Length Sayings"
I, no. 22.

Sutta includes all Discourses, such as the "Mangala sutta" ("Good Omen Discourse", Minor Readings, V), and also the Vinaya Pitaka and the Niddesa. In this classification the Vinaya is in the section of Sutta. The "Atthasaalinaa" mentions in this section on Sutta the Sutta-Vibhanga and Parivaara, which belong to the Vinaya.

Geyya includes all suttas with verses (gaathaa), such as the Sagaathaa-vagga of the Sa.myutta Nikaaya or "Kindred Sayings".

Veyyaakarana or "Exposition" includes the Abhidhamma Pi.taka, the suttas without verses, and the words of the Buddha which are not included in the other eight divisions.

Gaathaa or "Verses", include the Dhammapada, Theragaathaa, Therígaathaa (Psalms of the Brothers and Sisters) and those parts of the Sutta-Nipaata not called Sutta and entirely in verse.

Udaana or "Verses of Uplift" include eighty two suttas connected with verses recited by the Buddha, inspired by knowledge and joy.

Itivuttaka or "As it was said" includes hundred and ten suttas beginning with "Thus it was said by the Blessed One".

Jaataka or Birth Stories include five hundred and fifty stories of the past lives of the Buddha and his disciples, beginning with the "Apannaka Jaataka".

Abbhuta, "Marvellous", includes suttas connected with wonderful and marvellous things (dhammas with extraordinary qualities, which are amazing). Vedalla includes suttas with questions and answers which have as result understanding and delight, such as the "Cullavedallasutta".

As we have seen, pariyattidhammo includes the ninefold (nine limbs or a"ngas) classification of the teachings (sutta, geyya, etc.) which is a classification according to literary styles, and not according to given texts or books (See Nyanaponika's dictionary under sasana).

In the "Baahiranidaana" (Introductory chapter of the Commentary to the Vinaya, by Buddhaghosa), it is explained that the teachings as a whole have been laid down as, "This is the Dhamma and this is the Vinaya, these are the first, intermediate and final sayings of the Buddha, these are the Vinaya, Sutta and Abhidhamma Pi.takas, these are the Nikaayas from Diigha to Khuddaka, these are the nine A'ngas commencing with Sutta and these are the eighty-four thousand Units of the Dhamma, was rehearsed together by the assembly of self-controlled monks with Mahaakassapa as their leader verily observing this distinction."

Remark: thus, whenever the Dhamma and the Vinaya are referred to, the Abhidhamma is included in "Dhamma".

The following meaning of dhamma explained in the Dhammapada-Atthakatha, is dhamma as an entity without a living soul (nissatta, nijjiva):
"Tasmi.m khopana samaye dhammaa honti, khandhaa hontii"ti (dha. sa. 121)
Then, at that time dhammas occur, aggregates occur.

aya.mnissattadhammo naama, nijjiivadhammotipi eso eva.
this is dhamma without living being (non-substantial), it is also truly dhamma without life.

Tesu imasmi.m .thaane nissattanijjiivadhammo adhippeto.
As to these, dhamma without a living soul is meant in this case.

So atthato tayo aruupino khandhaa vedanaakkhandho sa~n~naakkhandho
sa'nkhaarakkhandhoti.
As to the meaning of this, there are the three mental aggregates of feeling, remembrance and formations (all cetasikas apart from feeling and remembrance).

N: Remark: the text quoted from the Dhammasangani (first Book of the Abhidhamma) states: "At the time of consciousness coming into existence, there occur dhammas." Thus, the aggregate of consciousness (vi~n`naa.nakkhandha) which is also a mental aggregate, is mentioned first, and then the other three mental aggregates denoted as dhammas are explained.

If we do not see the whole context we may not understand why three mental aggregates are mentioned separately.


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Re: Pali Term: Dhamma

Postby Dmytro » Sat Sep 11, 2010 9:27 am

Pali sources:

Dhammapada-Atthakatha 1.22

Dhammaati gu.na-desanaa-pariyatti-nissattanijjiivavasena cattaaro
dhammaa naama. Tesu-
"Na hi dhammo adhammo ca, ubho samavipaakino;
adhammo niraya.m neti, dhammo paapeti suggatin"ti.
(theragaa. 304; jaa. 1.15.386)-
Aya.m gu.nadhammo naama. "Dhamma.m vo, bhikkhave, desessaami
aadikalyaa.nan"ti (ma. ni. 3.420) aya.m desanaadhammo naama. "Idha
pana, bhikkhave, ekacce kulaputtaa dhamma.m pariyaapu.nanti sutta.m
geyyan"ti (ma. ni. 1.239) aya.m pariyattidhammo naama. "Tasmi.m kho
pana samaye dhammaa honti, khandhaa hontii"ti (dha. sa. 121) aya.m
nissattadhammo naama, nijjiivadhammotipi eso eva. Tesu imasmi.m
.thaane nissattanijjiivadhammo adhippeto. So atthato tayo aruupino
khandhaa vedanaakkhandho sa~n~naakkhandho sa'nkhaarakkhandhoti.

Siilakkhandhavagga-Atthakatha 1.99

28. Eva.m brahmadattena vuttava.n.nassa anusandhivasena tividha.m
siila.m vitthaaretvaa idaani bhikkhusa'nghena vuttava.n.nassa
anusandhivasena- "atthi, bhikkhave, a~n~neva dhammaa gambhiiraa
duddasaa"ti-aadinaa nayena su~n~nataapakaasana.m aarabhi. tattha
dhammaati gu.ne, desanaaya.m, pariyattiya.m, nissatteti evamaadiisu
dhammasaddo vattati.
"Na hi dhammo adhammo ca, ubho samavipaakino;
adhammo niraya.m neti, dhammo paapeti suggatin"ti. (theragaa. 304);

Aadiisu hi gu.ne dhammasaddo. "dhamma.m, vo bhikkhave, desessaami
aadikalyaa.nan"ti-aadiisu (ma. ni. 3.420) desanaaya.m. "idha bhikkhu
dhamma.m pariyaapu.naati sutta.m, geyyan"ti-aadiisu (a. ni. 5.73)
pariyattiya.m. "tasmi.m kho pana samaye dhammaa honti, khandhaa
hontii"ti-aadiisu (dha. sa. 121) nissatte. idha pana gu.ne vattati.
tasmaa atthi, bhikkhave, a~n~neva tathaagatassa gu.naati evamettha
attho da.t.thabbo.

Dhammasangani-Atthakatha .38

Dhammasaddo panaaya.m pariyatti-hetu-gu.na-nissatta-nijjiivata-adiisu
dissati. Aya~nhi "dhamma.m pariyaapu.naati sutta.m geyyan"ti-aadiisu
(a. ni. 4.102) pariyattiya.m dissati. "Hetumhi ~naa.na.m dhamma
pa.tisambhidaa"ti-aadiisu (vibha. 720) hetumhi.

"Na hi dhammo adhammo ca, ubho samavipaakino;
adhammo niraya.m neti, dhammo paapeti suggatin"ti.
(theragaa. 304; jaa. 1.15.386)-

Aadiisu gu.ne. "Tasmi.m kho pana samaye dhammaa honti" (dha. sa. 121),
"dhammesu dhammaanupassii viharatii"ti-aadiisu (dii. ni. 2.373)
nissattanijjiivataaya.m. Svaayamidhaapi nissattanijjiivataayameva
va.t.tati.

Saddanitippakarana (Dhatumala) .339

Dhammasaddo pariyatti-hetu-gu.na-nissatta-nijjiivata-adiisu dissati.
Aya~nhi "dhamma.m pariyaapu.naati sutta.m geyyan"ti-aadiisu
pariyattiya.m dissati. "Hetumhi ~naa.na.m
dhammapa.tisambhidaa"ti-aadiisu hetumhi.

"Na hi dhammo adhammo ca, ubho samavipaakino;
adhammo niraya.m neti, dhammo paapeti suggatin"ti

Aadiisu gu.ne. "Tasmi.m kho pana samaye dhammaa honti. Dhammesu
dhammaanupassii viharatii"ti-aadiisu nissattanijjiivataaya.m.

Atha vaa dhammasaddo
sabhaava-pa~n~naa-pu~n~na-pa~n~natti-aapatti-pariyatti-nissatta-nijjiivataa-vika\
ara-gu.na
paccaya-paccayuppanna-adiisu dissati. Aya~nhi "kusalaa dhammaa
akusalaa dhammaa abyaakataa dhammaa"ti-aadiisu sabhaave dissati.

Yassete caturo dhammaa, saddhassa gharamesino;
sacca.m dhammo dhiti caago, sa ve pecca na socatii"ti

Aadiisu pa~n~naaya.m.
"Na hi dhammo adhammo ca, ubho samavipaakino;
adhammo niraya.m neti, dhammo paapeti suggatin"ti-aadiisu

Pu~n~ne. "Pa~n~nattidhammaa, niruttidhammaa,
adhivacanaadhammaa"ti-aadiisu pa~n~nattiya.m. "Paaraajikaa dhammaa,
sa'nghaadisesaa dhammaa"ti-aadiisu aapattiya.m. "Idha bhikkhu dhamma.m
jaanaati sutta.m geyya.m veyyaakara.nan"ti-aadiisu pariyattiya.m.
"Tasmi.m kho pana samaye dhammaa honti. Dhammesu dhammaanupassii
viharatii"ti-aadiisu nissattanijjiivataaya.m. "Jaatidhammaa
jaraadhammaa mara.nadhammaa"ti-aadiisu vikaare. "Channa.m
buddhadhammaanan"ti-aadiisu gu.ne. "Hetumhi ~naa.na.m
dhammapa.tisambhidaa"ti-aadiisu paccaye. ".Thitaavasaa dhaatu
dhamma.t.thitataa dhammaniyaamataa"ti-aadiisu paccayuppanne.

Atha vaa dhammasaddo
pariyatti-sacca-samaadhi-pa~n~naa-pakati-pu~n~na-apatti-~neyya-adiisu
bahuusu atthesu di.t.thappayogo. Tathaa hi "idha bhikkhu dhamma.m
pariyaapu.naatii"ti-aadiisu pariyattiya.m dissati. "Di.t.thadhammo
pattadhammo"ti-aadiisu sacce. "Eva.mdhammaa te bhagavanto
ahesun"ti-aadiisu samaadhimhi. "Sacca.m dhammo dhiti caago"ti
evamaadiisu pa~n~naaya.m. "Jaatidhammaana.m bhikkhave sattaanan"ti
evamaadiisu pakatiya.m. "Dhammo have rakkhati dhammacaarin"ti
evamaadiisu pu~n~ne. "Cattaaro paaraajikaa dhammaa"ti-aadiisu
aapattiya.m. "Kusalaa dhammaa"ti-aadiisu ~neyye. Eva.m
dhammasaddappavattivisayaa vividhaa a.t.thakathaacariyehi dassitaa,
tattha tattha pana aadisaddena yuttivisayaadayo ca atthaa gahetabbaa.
Tathaa hi dhammasaddo-

"Nesa dhammo mahaaraaja, ya.m tva.m gaccheyya ekako;
ahampi tena gacchaami, yena gacchasi khattiyaa"ti

Aadiisu yuttiya.m vattati. "Mana~nca pa.ticca dhamme ca uppajjati
manovi~n~naa.nan"ti-aadiisu visaye. "Sata~nca dhammo na jara.m
upetii"ti ettha nibbaane vattati. Tatra yaa nissattataa, saa eva
nijjiivataa. Yo ca hetu, so eva paccayo.

Icceva.m-
Pariyattipaccayesu, gu.ne nissattataaya ca;
sabhaave ceva pa~n~naaya.m, pu~n~ne pa~n~nattiyampi ca.
Aapattiya.m vikaare ca, paccayuppannakepi ca;
saccasamaadhipakati-~neyyesu yuttiyampi ca;
visaye ceva nibbaane, dhammasaddo pavattati.
Keci pana dhammasaddassa pavattivisayaana.m dasadhaava pariccheda.m vadanti.

Сeyyamagge ca nibbaane, sabhaave atha jaatiya.m;
mane visayapu~n~nesu, bhaave paavacanepi ca;
imesu dasasvatthesu, dhammasaddo pavattati.

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Re: Pali Term: Dhamma

Postby piotr » Fri Sep 24, 2010 9:31 am

Hi,

It's interesting that in conversations with Jains dhamma is substituted with nijjarā (for example <AN i 221>, <AN ii 198>, <SN iv 339>).
Bhagavaṃmūlakā no, bhante, dhammā...

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Re: Pali Term: Dhamma

Postby David N. Snyder » Fri Sep 24, 2010 2:19 pm

The Six qualities of the Dhamma:

1. Svakkhato: The Dhamma is not a speculative philosophy, but is the Universal Law found through enlightenment and is preached precisely. Therefore it is Excellent in the beginning (Sila — Moral principles), Excellent in the middle (Samadhi — Concentration) and Excellent in the end (Panna — Wisdom),

2. Samditthiko: The Dhamma is testable by practice and known by direct experience,

3. Akaliko: The Dhamma is able to bestow timeless and immediate results here and now, for which there is no need to wait until the future or next existence.

4. Ehipassiko: The Dhamma welcomes all beings to put it to the test and to experience it for themselves.

5. Opaneyiko: The Dhamma is capable of being entered upon and therefore it is worthy to be followed as a part of one's life.

6. Paccattam veditabbo vinnunhi: The Dhamma may be perfectly realized only by the noble disciples who have matured and enlightened enough in supreme wisdom.

(from Anguttara Nikaya 11.12)


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