Perhaps we need to define what wrong livelihood is:
"A lay follower should not engage in five types of business. Which five? Business in weapons, business in human beings, business in meat, business in intoxicants, and business in poison."
— AN 5.177
It could be argued that bounty hunting is wrong livelihood because of the significant role of weapons and the similarity to human trafficking. Whichever way you want to argue it, it is pretty clear that the activities of the bounty hunter in question are morally reprehensible. Personally, I wouldn't pursue bounty hunting as a career option if I could avoid it and I don't think 'Dog' or any of his associates would make for model citizens.
Thank you, Ben! Very helpful.
However, don't you find the word "business" a bit vague as well?
I read "dealing" in other translations, as here for instance by Bikkhu Bodhi, which seems to be a bot more specific, at least in my understanding. "Business" is a very vast field.
Right Livelihood (samma ajiva)
Right livelihood is concerned with ensuring that one earns one's living in a righteous way. For a lay disciple the Buddha teaches that wealth should be gained in accordance with certain standards. One should acquire it only by legal means, not illegally; one should acquire it peacefully, without coercion or violence; one should acquire it honestly, not by trickery or deceit; and one should acquire it in ways which do not entail harm and suffering for others.34 The Buddha mentions five specific kinds of livelihood which bring harm to others and are therefore to be avoided: dealing in weapons, in living beings (including raising animals for slaughter as well as slave trade and prostitution), in meat production and butchery, in poisons, and in intoxicants (AN 5:177). He further names several dishonest means of gaining wealth which fall under wrong livelihood: practicing deceit, treachery, soothsaying, trickery, and usury (MN 117). Obviously any occupation that requires violation of right speech and right action is a wrong form of livelihood, but other occupations, such as selling weapons or intoxicants, may not violate those factors and yet be wrong because of their consequences for others.
The Thai treatise discusses the positive aspects of right livelihood under the three convenient headings of rightness regarding actions, rightness regarding persons, and rightness regarding objects.35 "Rightness regarding actions" means that workers should fulfill their duties diligently and conscientiously, not idling away time, claiming to have worked longer hours than they did, or pocketing the company's goods. "Rightness regarding persons" means that due respect and consideration should be shown to employers, employees, colleagues, and customers. An employer, for example, should assign his workers chores according to their ability, pay them adequately, promote them when they deserve a promotion and give them occasional vacations and bonuses. Colleagues should try to cooperate rather than compete, while merchants should be equitable in their dealings with customers. "Rightness regarding objects" means that in business transactions and sales the articles to be sold should be presented truthfully. There should be no deceptive advertising, misrepresentations of quality or quantity, or dishonest manoeuvers.
So, let's take a look at bounty hunting.
1. Obviously, it is not dealing with slaves, = people who are illegally deprived of their freedom.
2. Obviously, it is not dealing with prostitutes.
3.It is not dealing with animals.
4. It is not dealig with intoxicants.
5. It is not dealing
with weapons, only using them as both a protection against armed criminals and to be able to arrest armed criminals.
6. They don't violate the law by wearing arms.
7. They don't violate the law by arresting criminals, on the contrary, the State approves of them.
8. They only use coercion in a defensive manner: when peaceful means don't have a grip on people who resist the laws and their executives, police and bounty hunters.
The Laws of the State say you may not offer resistance. So when you do, somebody has to interfere, and protect the others: our Police would be wrong livelyhood, and I don't think Buddha wanted to say or teach that, mattroffact, herhe says:" only by legal means, not illegall", and the institution of Police is legal, also catching criminals the Police can't get a hold of.