Alan M wrote:However, Warder, too, doesn't seem to mention anything but the "past" form and explicitly states:
After having checked every page of Warder's "Introduction to Pali" with a listing for gerund, I have come to the conlusion that he does not list any exceptions to this statement. However, in the glossary, he does list the meaning of "pat.icca" as being "conditioned by (or) because of" which obviously breaks his own rule. It seems odd that Warder would disreguard "pa.ticca," a quite common term, and thus common exception, in his description of the "gerund."Warder wrote:"The Gerund, an indeclinable participle, is used to express an action preceeding the action of the main verb of the sentence."
In the ancient grammars the participles in -tvaa, -tuuna, and -tvaana have several more syntactical functions than one will find listed in Warder. It might be useful to list them.
The examples below are taken from the Saddaniiti of Aggava.msa and the Paaliveyyaakara.na of Prince Vajira~naa.navarorasa.
Action denoted by the tvaa-particle comes first (pubbakaalakiriyaa); action denoted by finite verb comes after (uttarakaalakiriyaa).
dhamma.m sutvaa gaama.m paccaagacchati.
Having heard the Dhamma he returned to the village.
Having ploughed [the field] he sows [the seed].
Indicates simultaneity of the actions denoted by the finite verb and the tvaa-particle.
chatta.m gahetvaa gacchati.
He walks holding a parasol.
Action denoted by the tvaa-particle follows an action denoted by a finite verb. Prince V. gives the example:
dhammaasane nisiidi cittaviijani.m gahetvaa.
He sat down on the Dhamma-teaching seat and took hold of the decorated fan.
I don't recall ever meeting with a sentence like the above in any actual text.
dvaara.m aavaritvaa pavisati.
He entered and [then] closed the door.
He states that this sentence might also be samaanakaalakiriyaa if the man happened to close the door while he was entering.
According to Prince V. this means that the tvaa-particle reiterates some finite verb in order to show that the action denoted by the latter is completed.
yena bhagavaa tenupasa`nkami, upasa`nkamitvaa ... nisiidi.
He approached to where the Blessed One was; having approached ... he sat down.
I think the Prince's definition is too narrow and makes the distinction between pubbakaalakiriyaa and pariyosaanakaalakiriyaa seem a bit artificial and unnecessary. It is also at odds with how pariyosaanakaalakiriyaa is used by vinayadharas. For them it doesn't entail repetition of a finite verb, but rather, that the action of the tvaa-particle (or equivalent) must terminate in (or be brought to an end by: pariyosaapeti) the action of the finite verb that follows. For example, in the phrase "sa~ncicca paa.na.m jiivitaa voropeyya" it makes a material difference in assessing a monk's guilt whether sa~ncicca is construed as pubbakaalakiriyaa or pariyosaanakaalakiriyaa; vinayadharas are at pains to stress that it is the latter.
5) Visesana.m (adjectival)
.thapetvaa dve aggasaavake avasesaa arahatta.m paapu.ni.msu.
The two chief disciples set aside, all the rest attained arahantship.
Apart from the two chief disciples, all the rest attained arahantship.
6) Kiriyaavisesana.m (adverbial)
tii.ni ratanaani .thapetvaa a~n~na.m me pa.tisara.na.m n'atthi.
There is not, setting aside the three jewels, another refuge for me.
There is no other refuge for me apart from the three jewels.
The distinction between #5 and 6 doesn't come across very clearly in English translation. In #5 .thapetvaa functions as an adjective qualifying dve aggasaavake. In #6 it functions as an adverb qualifying n'atthi.
7) Hetu (causal).
The action of the (often unstated) subject is expressed in the tvaa-particle and is the cause of the action indicated by the finite verb.
gacchaami'daani nibbaana.m, yattha gantvaa na socati.
I go now to Nibbaana, where, because of going there, one sorrows not.
I go now to Nibbaana, whither having gone one sorrows not.
In this causal usage the subject of the finite verb will often differ from that of the tvaa-particle:
siiha.m disvaa bhaya.m uppajjati.
On account of seeing a lion fear arises [in him].
Fear arises in him at the sight of a lion.
ghata.m pivitvaa bala.m jaayate.
He, having drunk ghee, strength arises [in him].