Asappurisa

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Buddha Vacana
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Asappurisa

Post by Buddha Vacana »

Here is the result of a little research made in the suttas (source):

asappurisa: [a+sappurisa]
bad person.


The word is always contrasted with sappurisa. Bāla is sometimes explicitly mentioned as a synonym:
MN 129
‘bālo ayaṃ bhavaṃ asappuriso’’ti.
‘This individual is a fool, a bad person’.
The term is defined multiple times. We find in the suttas three main ways to define it. According to the micchā·paṭipadā:
SN 45.26
katamo ca, bhikkhave, asappuriso? idha, bhikkhave, ekacco micchādiṭṭhiko hoti, micchāsaṅkappo, micchāvāco, micchākammanto, micchāājīvo, micchāvāyāmo, micchāsati, micchāsamādhi. ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, asappuriso”.
And what, bhikkhus, is a bad person? Here, bhikkhus, someone is of wrong view, wrong aspiration, wrong speech, wrong action, wrong livelihood, wrong effort, wrong mindfulness and wrong concentration. This, bhikkhus, is what is called a bad person.

“katamo ca, bhikkhave, asappurisena asappurisataro? idha, bhikkhave, ekacco micchādiṭṭhiko hoti, micchāsaṅkappo, micchāvāco, micchākammanto, micchāājīvo, micchāvāyāmo, micchāsati, micchāsamādhi, micchāñāṇī, micchāvimutti. ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, asappurisena asappurisataro.
And what, bhikkhus, is one who is worse than a bad person? Here, bhikkhus, someone is of wrong view, wrong aspiration, wrong speech, wrong action, wrong livelihood, wrong effort, wrong mindfulness, wrong concentration, wrong knowledge and wrong liberation. This, bhikkhus, is what is called one who is worse than a bad person.
According to various subsets of the ten akusalā kamma·pathā:
AN 4.204
“katamo ca, bhikkhave, asappuriso? idha, bhikkhave, ekacco pāṇātipātī hoti, adinnādāyī hoti, kāmesumicchācārī hoti, musāvādī hoti, pisuṇavāco hoti, pharusavāco hoti, samphappalāpī hoti, abhijjhālu hoti, byāpannacitto hoti, micchādiṭṭhiko hoti. ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, asappuriso.
And what, bhikkhus, is a bad person? Here, bhikkhus, someone destroys life, takes what is not given, engages in misconduct regarding [pleasures of] sensuality, speaks falsehood, speaks maliciously, speaks harshly, speaks frivolously, is covetous, has a malevolent mind, is of wrong view. This, bhikkhus, is what is called a bad person.

“katamo ca, bhikkhave, asappurisena asappurisataro? idha, bhikkhave, ekacco attanā ca pāṇātipātī hoti, parañca pāṇātipāte samādapeti, attanā ca adinnādāyī hoti, parañca adinnādāne samādapeti, attanā ca kāmesumicchācārī hoti, parañca kāmesumicchācāre samādapeti, attanā ca musāvādī hoti, parañca musāvāde samādapeti, attanā ca pisuṇavāco hoti, parañca pisuṇavācāya samādapeti, attanā ca pharusavāco hoti, parañca pharusavācāya samādapeti, attanā ca samphappalāpī hoti, parañca samphappalāpe samādapeti, attanā ca abhijjhālu hoti, parañca abhijjhāya samādapeti; attanā ca byāpannacitto hoti, parañca byāpāde samādapeti, attanā ca micchādiṭṭhiko hoti, parañca micchādiṭṭhiyā samādapeti. ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, asappurisena asappurisataro.
And what, bhikkhus, is one who is worse than a bad person? Here, bhikkhus, someone destroys life himself and incites others to destroy life, takes what is not given himself and incites others to take what is not given, engages in misconduct regarding [pleasures of] sensuality himself and incites others to engage in misconduct regarding [pleasures of] sensuality, speaks falsehood himself and incites others to speak falsehood, speaks maliciously himself and incites others to speak maliciously, speaks harshly himself and incites others to, speaks frivolously himself and incites others to, is covetous himself and incites others to speak harshly, has a malevolent mind himself and incites others to have a malevolent mind, is of wrong view himself and incites others to have wrong view. This, bhikkhus, is what is called one who is worse than a bad person.
According to a particular set of bad qualities:
AN 4.202
“katamo ca, bhikkhave, asappuriso? idha, bhikkhave, ekacco assaddho hoti, ahiriko hoti, anottappī hoti, appassuto hoti, kusīto hoti, muṭṭhassati hoti, duppañño hoti. ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, asappuriso.
And what, bhikkhus, is a bad person? Here, bhikkhus, someone doesn't have conviction, doesn't have conscientiousness, doesn't have scruple, doesn't acquire learning, is lazy, is of forgetful mindfulness, is of deficient discernment. This, bhikkhus, is what is called a bad person.

“katamo ca, bhikkhave, asappurisena asappurisataro? idha, bhikkhave, ekacco attanā ca assaddho hoti, parañca assaddhiye samādapeti; attanā ca ahiriko hoti, parañca ahirikatāya samādapeti; attanā ca anottappī hoti, parañca anottappe samādapeti; attanā ca appassuto hoti, parañca appassute samādapeti; attanā ca kusīto hoti, parañca kosajje samādapeti; attanā ca muṭṭhassati hoti, parañca muṭṭhassacce samādapeti; attanā ca duppañño hoti, parañca duppaññatāya samādapeti. ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, asappurisena asappurisataro.
And what, bhikkhus, is one who is worse than a bad person? Here, bhikkhus, someone doesn't have conviction himself and incites others to be without conviction, doesn't have conscientiousness himself and incites others to be without conscientiousness, doesn't have scruple himself and incites others to be without scruple, doesn't acquire learning himself and incites others to not acquire learning, is lazy himself and incites others to be lazy, is of forgetful mindfulness himself and incites others to be of forgetful mindfulness, is of deficient discernment himself and incites others to be of deficient discernment. This, bhikkhus, is what is called one who is worse than a bad person.
The term is also defined or explained at great length in two suttas of the Majjhima Nikāya:
MN 110
asappuriso, bhikkhave, assaddhammasamannāgato hoti, asappurisabhatti hoti, asappurisacintī hoti, asappurisamantī hoti, asappurisavāco hoti, asappurisakammanto hoti, asappurisadiṭṭhi hoti; asappurisadānaṃ deti”.
"A person of no integrity is endowed with qualities of no integrity; he is a person of no integrity in his friendship, in the way he wills, the way he gives advice, the way he speaks, the way he acts, the views he holds, & the way he gives a gift.

“kathañca, bhikkhave, asappuriso assaddhammasamannāgato hoti? idha, bhikkhave, asappuriso assaddho hoti, ahiriko hoti, anottappī hoti, appassuto hoti, kusīto hoti, muṭṭhassati hoti, duppañño hoti. evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, asappuriso assaddhammasamannāgato hoti.
"And how is a person of no integrity endowed with qualities of no integrity? There is the case where a person of no integrity is lacking in conviction, lacking in conscience, lacking in concern [for the results of unskillful actions]; he is unlearned, lazy, of muddled mindfulness, & poor discernment. This is how a person of no integrity is endowed with qualities of no integrity."

“kathañca, bhikkhave, asappuriso asappurisabhatti hoti? idha, bhikkhave, asappurisassa ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā assaddhā ahirikā anottappino appassutā kusītā muṭṭhassatino duppaññā tyāssa mittā honti te sahāyā. evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, asappuriso asappurisabhatti hoti.
"And how is a person of no integrity a person of no integrity in his friendship? There is the case where a person of no integrity has, as his friends & companions, those brahmans & contemplatives who are lacking in conviction, lacking in conscience, lacking in concern, unlearned, lazy, of muddled mindfulness, & poor discernment. This is how a person of no integrity is a person of no integrity in his friendship.

“kathañca, bhikkhave, asappuriso asappurisacintī hoti? idha, bhikkhave, asappuriso attabyābādhāyapi ceteti, parabyābādhāyapi ceteti, ubhayabyābādhāyapi ceteti. evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, asappuriso asappurisacintī hoti.
"And how is a person of no integrity a person of no integrity in the way he wills? There is the case where a person of no integrity wills for his own affliction, or for the affliction of others, or for the affliction of both. This is how a person of no integrity is a person of no integrity in the way he wills.

“kathañca, bhikkhave, asappuriso asappurisamantī hoti? idha, bhikkhave, asappuriso attabyābādhāyapi manteti, parabyābādhāyapi manteti, ubhayabyābādhāyapi manteti. evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, asappuriso asappurisamantī hoti.
"And how is a person of no integrity a person of no integrity in the way he gives advice? There is the case where a person of no integrity gives advice for his own affliction, or for the affliction of others, or for the affliction of both. This is how a person of no integrity is a person of no integrity in the way he gives advice.

“kathañca, bhikkhave, asappuriso asappurisavāco hoti? idha, bhikkhave, asappuriso musāvādī hoti, pisuṇavāco hoti, pharusavāco hoti, samphappalāpī hoti. evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, asappuriso asappurisavāco hoti.
"And how is a person of no integrity a person of no integrity in the way he speaks? There is the case where a person of no integrity is one who tells lies, engages in divisive tale-bearing, engages in harsh speech, engages in idle chatter. This is how a person of no integrity is a person of no integrity in the way he speaks.

“kathañca, bhikkhave, asappuriso asappurisakammanto hoti? idha, bhikkhave, asappuriso pāṇātipātī hoti, adinnādāyī hoti, kāmesumicchācārī hoti. evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, asappuriso asappurisakammanto hoti.
"And how is a person of no integrity a person of no integrity in the way he acts? There is the case where a person of no integrity is one who takes life, steals, engages in illicit sex. This is how a person of no integrity is a person of no integrity in the way he acts.

“kathañca, bhikkhave, asappuriso asappurisadiṭṭhi hoti? idha, bhikkhave, asappuriso evaṃdiṭṭhi hoti: ‘natthi dinnaṃ, natthi yiṭṭhaṃ, natthi hutaṃ, natthi sukatadukkaṭānaṃ kammānaṃ phalaṃ vipāko, natthi ayaṃ loko, natthi paro loko, natthi mātā, natthi pitā, natthi sattā opapātikā, natthi loke samaṇabrāhmaṇā sammaggatā sammāpaṭipannā, ye imañca lokaṃ parañca lokaṃ sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā pavedentī’ti. evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, asappuriso asappurisadiṭṭhi hoti.
"And how is a person of no integrity a person of no integrity in the views he holds? There is the case where a person of no integrity is one who holds a view like this: 'There is nothing given, nothing offered, nothing sacrificed. There is no fruit or result of good or bad actions. There is no this world, no next world, no mother, no father, no spontaneously reborn beings; no brahmans or contemplatives who, faring rightly & practicing rightly, proclaim this world & the next after having directly known & realized it for themselves.' This is how a person of no integrity is a person of no integrity in the views he holds.

“kathañca, bhikkhave, asappuriso asappurisadānaṃ deti? idha, bhikkhave, asappuriso asakkaccaṃ dānaṃ deti, asahatthā dānaṃ deti, acittīkatvā dānaṃ deti, apaviṭṭhaṃ dānaṃ deti anāgamanadiṭṭhiko dānaṃ deti. evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, asappuriso asappurisadānaṃ deti.
"And how is a person of no integrity a person of no integrity in the way he gives a gift? There is the case where a person of no integrity gives a gift inattentively, not with his own hand, disrespectfully, as if throwing it away, with the view that nothing will come of it. This is how a person of no integrity is a person of no integrity in the way he gives a gift.

“so, bhikkhave, asappuriso evaṃ assaddhammasamannāgato, evaṃ asappurisabhatti, evaṃ asappurisacintī, evaṃ asappurisamantī, evaṃ asappurisavāco, evaṃ asappurisakammanto, evaṃ asappurisadiṭṭhi; evaṃ asappurisadānaṃ datvā kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā yā asappurisānaṃ gati tattha upapajjati. kā ca, bhikkhave, asappurisānaṃ gati? nirayo vā tiracchānayoni vā.
"This person of no integrity, thus endowed with qualities of no integrity; a person of no integrity in his friendship, in the way he wills, the way he gives advice, the way he speaks, the way he acts, the views he holds, & the way he gives a gift, on the break-up of the body, after death, reappears in the destination of people of no integrity. And what is the destination of people of no integrity? Hell or the animal womb.
MN 113
“katamo ca, bhikkhave, asappurisadhammo? idha, bhikkhave, asappuriso uccākulā pabbajito hoti. so iti paṭisañcikkhati: ‘ahaṃ khomhi uccākulā pabbajito, ime panaññe bhikkhū na uccākulā pabbajitā’ti. so tāya uccākulīnatāya attānukkaṃseti, paraṃ vambheti. ayaṃ, bhikkhave, asappurisadhammo ...
"And which is the quality of a person of no integrity? "There is the case where a person of no integrity goes forth from a high-ranking family. He notices, 'I have gone forth from a high-ranking family, but these other monks have not gone forth from a high-ranking family.' He exalts himself for having a high-ranking family and disparages others. This is the quality of a person of no integrity ...

“puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, asappuriso mahākulā pabbajito hoti ... mahābhogakulā pabbajito hoti ... uḷārabhogakulā pabbajito hoti. so iti paṭisañcikkhati: ‘ahaṃ khomhi uḷārabhogakulā pabbajito, ime panaññe bhikkhū na uḷārabhogakulā pabbajitā’ti. so tāya uḷārabhogatāya attānukkaṃseti, paraṃ vambheti. ayampi, bhikkhave, asappurisadhammo ...
"Furthermore, a person of no integrity goes forth from a great family... a family of great wealth... a family of extensive wealth. He notices, 'I have gone forth from a family of extensive wealth, but these other monks have not gone forth from a family of extensive wealth.' He exalts himself for having a family of extensive wealth and disparages others. This is the quality of a person of no integrity ...

“puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, asappuriso ñāto hoti yasassī... lābhī hoti cīvara-piṇḍapāta-senāsana-gilāna-ppaccaya-bhesajja-parikkhārānaṃ... bahussuto hoti... vinayadharo hoti... dhammakathiko hoti... āraññiko hoti... paṃsukūliko hoti... piṇḍapātiko hoti... rukkhamūliko hoti... sosāniko hoti... abbhokāsiko hoti... nesajjiko hoti... yathāsanthatiko hoti... ekāsaniko hoti... paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ... dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ... tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ... catutthaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati... ākāsānañcāyatanaṃ... viññāṇañcāyatanaṃ... ākiñcaññāyatanaṃ... nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṃ upasampajja viharati. so iti paṭisañcikkhati: ‘ahaṃ khomhi neva-saññā-nāsaññ-āyatana-samāpattiyā lābhī, ime panaññe bhikkhū neva-saññā-nāsaññ-āyatana-samāpattiyā na lābhino’ti. so tāya neva-saññā-nāsaññ-āyatana-samāpattiyā attānukkaṃseti, paraṃ vambheti. ayampi, bhikkhave, asappurisadhammo.
"Furthermore, a person of no integrity is well-known & highly regarded ... is one who gains robe-cloth, alms-food, lodgings, & medicinal requisites for the sick ... is learned ... is a master of the Vinaya ... is a Dhamma-speaker ... is a wilderness dweller ... is one who wears robes of thrown-away rags... an alms-goer... one who dwells at the root of a tree... a cemetery dweller... one who lives in the open air... one who doesn't lie down... one who is content with whatever dwelling is assigned to him... one who eats only one meal a day ... enters & remains in the first jhāna ... in the second jhāna... the third jhāna... the fourth jhāna... the dimension of the infinitude of space... the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness... the dimension of nothingness... the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception. He notices, 'I have gained the attainment of the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception, but these other monks have not gained the attainment of the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception.' He exalts himself for the attainment of the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception and disparages others. This is the quality of a person of no integrity.
The sutta doesn't mention the behavior of an asappurisa who would attain saññā·vedayita·nirodha, while it mentions that of a sappurisa in such a case, which suggests that a person who reaches such a state can no longer be an asappurisa.

♦ An asappurisa can be recognized by the way he relates to his own and his fellows' faults and virtues:
AN 4.73
“catūhi, bhikkhave, dhammehi samannāgato asappuriso veditabbo. katamehi catūhi? idha, bhikkhave, asappuriso yo hoti parassa avaṇṇo taṃ apuṭṭhopi pātu karoti, ko pana vādo puṭṭhassa! puṭṭho kho pana pañhābhinīto ahāpetvā alambitvā paripūraṃ vitthārena parassa avaṇṇaṃ bhāsitā hoti. veditabbametaṃ, bhikkhave, asappuriso ayaṃ bhavanti.
"Monks, a person endowed with these four qualities can be known as 'a person of no integrity.' Which four? There is the case where a person of no integrity, when unasked, reveals another person's bad points, to say nothing of when asked. Furthermore, when asked, when pressed with questions, he is one who speaks of another person's bad points in full & in detail, without omission, without holding back. Of this person you may know, 'This venerable one is a person of no integrity.'

“puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, asappuriso yo hoti parassa vaṇṇo taṃ puṭṭhopi na pātu karoti, ko pana vādo apuṭṭhassa! puṭṭho kho pana pañhābhinīto hāpetvā lambitvā aparipūraṃ avitthārena parassa vaṇṇaṃ bhāsitā hoti. veditabbametaṃ, bhikkhave, asappuriso ayaṃ bhavanti.
"Then again, a person of no integrity, when asked, does not reveal another person's good points, to say nothing of when unasked. Furthermore, when asked, when pressed with questions, he is one who speaks of another person's good points not in full, not in detail, with omissions, holding back. Of this person you may know, 'This venerable one is a person of no integrity.'

“puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, asappuriso yo hoti attano avaṇṇo taṃ puṭṭhopi na pātu karoti, ko pana vādo apuṭṭhassa! puṭṭho kho pana pañhābhinīto hāpetvā lambitvā aparipūraṃ avitthārena attano avaṇṇaṃ bhāsitā hoti. veditabbametaṃ, bhikkhave, asappuriso ayaṃ bhavanti.
"Then again, a person of no integrity, when asked, does not reveal his own bad points, to say nothing of when unasked. Furthermore, when asked, when pressed with questions, he is one who speaks of his own bad points not in full, not in detail, with omissions, holding back. Of this person you may know, 'This venerable one is a person of no integrity.'

“puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, asappuriso yo hoti attano vaṇṇo taṃ apuṭṭhopi pātu karoti, ko pana vādo puṭṭhassa! puṭṭho kho pana pañhābhinīto ahāpetvā alambitvā paripūraṃ vitthārena attano vaṇṇaṃ bhāsitā hoti. veditabbametaṃ, bhikkhave, asappuriso ayaṃ bhavanti. imehi kho, bhikkhave, catūhi dhammehi samannāgato asappuriso veditabbo.
"Then again, a person of no integrity, when unasked, reveals his own good points, to say nothing of when asked. Furthermore, when asked, when pressed with questions, he is one who speaks of his own good points in full & in detail, without omissions, without holding back. Of this person you may know, 'This venerable one is a person of no integrity.'
♦ According to AN 2.33, an asappurisa is ungrateful (a·kat·aññū - 'not knowing what has been done') and unthankful (a·kata·vedī - 'not feeling what has been done').

♦ At AN 2.135, someone who, without knowing well nor investigating (an·anuvicca a·pariy·ogāhetvā), speaks in praise of someone who deserves critic (a·vaṇṇ·ārahassa vaṇṇaṃ bhāsati), or without knowing well nor investigating, criticizes someone who deserves praise (vaṇṇ·ārahassa a·vaṇṇaṃ bhāsati), is an asappurisa. In the immediately following sutta, the same holds for believing a matter that merits suspiscion (appasādanīye ṭhāne pasādaṃ upadaṃseti) or being suspicious about a matter that merits belief (pasādanīye ṭhāne appasādaṃ upadaṃseti).

♦ At AN 2.137, one who misbehaves (micchā·paṭipajjati) towards his mother and father is an asappurisa, and in the immediately following sutta, the same holds for the Tathāgata or one of his disciples (tathāgata·sāvaka).

♦ At AN 4.187, an asappurisa is not able to know for himself who really is an asappurisa or a sappurisa.

♦ At AN 5.147, there are five types of 'dānā of a bad person' (a·sappurisa·dānā): he gives casually (a·sa·kkaccaṃ deti), he gives without reverence (a·cittī·katvā deti), he does not give with his own hands (a·sa·hatthā deti), he gives what would be discarded (a·paviddhaṃ deti), he gives without a view about the returns of giving (an·āgamana·diṭṭhi·ko deti).

♦ At AN 10.61, listening to a teaching that contradicts the saddhamma is caused by association with asappurisā.
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