Can somebody provide a grammatical analysis for this sentence?

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sma
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Can somebody provide a grammatical analysis for this sentence?

Post by sma »

hetupaccayoti hetū hetusampayuttakānaṃ dhammānaṃ taṃsamuṭṭhānānañca rūpānaṃ hetupaccayena paccayo.

This is the first sentence in Paṭṭhāna. According to my limited Pali knowledge, hetū is the subject (masculine, plural).
My questions are:
1) What is the function of "paccayo"? Why is it singular?
2) What does "taṃ" refer to in "taṃsamuṭṭhānānañca"? Is it accusative?
3) Can you provide a word for word transaltion for this sentence?
Thank you!
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Dhammanando
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Re: Can somebody provide a grammatical analysis for this sentence?

Post by Dhammanando »

sma wrote: Fri Jan 29, 2021 3:43 pm hetupaccayoti hetū hetusampayuttakānaṃ dhammānaṃ taṃsamuṭṭhānānañca rūpānaṃ hetupaccayena paccayo.
U Nārada's translation:
1. ROOT CONDITION

The roots are related to the states which are associated with roots, and the matter produced thereby, by root condition.
Word for word:

hetupaccayoti - 1. ROOT CONDITION.
hetū - the roots.
hetusampayuttakānaṃ - which are associated with roots.
dhammānaṃ - to the states.
taṃsamuṭṭhānānañca - and ... produced thereby.
rūpānaṃ - the matter
hetupaccayena - by root condition.
paccayo - not translated by Nārada, presumably because it would make the already rather stilted English even more stilted. If one were to translate it, then it would come just after the title:

What is called "root condition" is the condition [consisting] in roots related to the states... etc.

1. Paccayo at the end is singular because hetupaccayo at the beginning is singular.
2. Taṃ is morphologically accusative here, but not semantically so.
Anabhirati kho, āvuso, imasmiṃ dhammavinaye dukkhā, abhirati sukhā.

“To not delight in this dhammavinaya, friend, is painful; to delight in it is bliss.”
(Sukhasutta, AN 10:66)
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sma
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Location: China

Re: Can somebody provide a grammatical analysis for this sentence?

Post by sma »

Dhammanando wrote: Fri Jan 29, 2021 6:06 pm
sma wrote: Fri Jan 29, 2021 3:43 pm hetupaccayoti hetū hetusampayuttakānaṃ dhammānaṃ taṃsamuṭṭhānānañca rūpānaṃ hetupaccayena paccayo.
U Nārada's translation:
1. ROOT CONDITION

The roots are related to the states which are associated with roots, and the matter produced thereby, by root condition.
Word for word:
hetupaccayoti - 1. ROOT CONDITION.
hetū - the roots.
hetusampayuttakānaṃ - which are associated with roots.
dhammānaṃ - to the states.
taṃsamuṭṭhānānañca - and ... produced thereby.
rūpānaṃ - the matter
2. Taṃ is morphologically accusative here, but not semantically so.
Thank you!
Can you tell me what is the function of "taṃ"? Does it refer to "hetū"? Are all the words with -naṃ ending genitives?
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