AN 6.63: Nibbedhika Sutta — Penetrative

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AN 6.63: Nibbedhika Sutta — Penetrative

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AN 6.63 PTS: A iii 410 Nibbedhika Sutta: Penetrative
translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu


The Buddha explains that mastery of the Dhamma comes from meditating on six factors in the mind, each of which should be understood deeply in six different ways. This sutta contains a lovely short verse pointing out the true cause of attachment based on sensuality.

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka ... .than.html

"I will teach you the penetrative explanation that is a Dhamma explanation. Listen & pay close attention. I will speak."

"As you say, lord," the monks responded.

The Blessed One said: "And which penetrative explanation is a Dhamma explanation?

"Sensuality should be known. The cause by which sensuality comes into play should be known. The diversity in sensuality should be known. The result of sensuality should be known. The cessation of sensuality should be known. The path of practice for the cessation of sensuality should be known.

"Feeling should be known. The cause by which feeling comes into play should be known. The diversity in feeling should be known. The result of feeling should be known. The cessation of feeling should be known. The path of practice for the cessation of feeling should be known.

"Perception should be known. The cause by which perception comes into play should be known. The diversity in perception should be known. The result of perception should be known. The cessation of perception should be known. The path of practice for the cessation of perception should be known.

"Fermentations[1] should be known. The cause by which fermentations come into play should be known. The diversity in fermentations should be known. The result of fermentations should be known. The cessation of fermentations should be known. The path of practice for the cessation of fermentations should be known

"Kamma should be known. The cause by which kamma comes into play should be known. The diversity in kamma should be known. The result of kamma should be known. The cessation of kamma should be known. The path of practice for the cessation of kamma should be known.

"Stress should be known. The cause by which stress comes into play should be known. The diversity in stress should be known. The result of stress should be known. The cessation of stress should be known. The path of practice for the cessation of stress should be known.

[1] "'Sensuality should be known. The cause by which sensuality comes into play... The diversity in sensuality... The result of sensuality... The cessation of sensuality... The path of practice for the cessation of sensuality should be known.' Thus it has been said. In reference to what was it said?

"There are these five strings of sensuality. Which five? Forms cognizable via the eye — agreeable, pleasing, charming, endearing, fostering desire, enticing; sounds cognizable via the ear... aromas cognizable via the nose... flavors cognizable via the tongue... tactile sensations cognizable via the body — agreeable, pleasing, charming, endearing, fostering desire, enticing. But these are not sensuality. They are called strings of sensuality in the discipline of the noble ones.
  • The passion for his resolves is a man's sensuality,
    not the beautiful sensual pleasures
    found in the world.
    The passion for his resolves is a man's sensuality.

    The beauties remain as they are in the world,
    while the wise, in this regard,
    subdue their desire.
    "And what is the cause by which sensuality comes into play? Contact is the cause by which sensuality comes into play.
"And what is the diversity in sensuality? Sensuality with regard to forms is one thing, sensuality with regard to sounds is another, sensuality with regard to aromas is another, sensuality with regard to flavors is another, sensuality with regard to tactile sensations is another. This is called the diversity in sensuality.

"And what is the result of sensuality? One who wants sensuality produces a corresponding state of existence, on the side of merit or demerit. This is called the result of sensuality.

"And what is the cessation of sensuality? From the cessation of contact is the cessation of sensuality; and just this noble eightfold path — right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration — is the way leading to the cessation of sensuality.

"Now when a disciple of the noble ones discerns sensuality in this way, the cause by which sensuality comes into play in this way, the diversity of sensuality in this way, the result of sensuality in this way, the cessation of sensuality in this way, & the path of practice leading to the cessation of sensuality in this way, then he discerns this penetrative holy life as the cessation of sensuality.

"'Sensuality should be known. The cause by which sensuality comes into play... The diversity in sensuality... The result of sensuality... The cessation of sensuality... The path of practice for the cessation of sensuality should be known.' Thus it has been said, and in reference to this was it said.

[2] "'Feeling should be known. The cause by which feeling comes into play... The diversity in feeling... The result of feeling... The cessation of feeling... The path of practice for the cessation of feeling should be known.' Thus it has been said. In reference to what was it said?

"There are these three kinds of feeling: a feeling of pleasure, a feeling of pain, & feeling of neither pleasure nor pain.

"And what is the cause by which feeling comes into play? Contact is the cause by which feeling comes into play.

"And what is the diversity in feeling? There is the feeling of pleasure connected with the baits of the world. There is the feeling of pleasure not connected with the baits of the world. There is the feeling of pain connected with the baits of the world. There is the feeling of pain not connected with the baits of the world. There is the feeling of neither pleasure nor pain connected with the baits of the world. There is the feeling of neither pleasure nor pain not connected with the baits of the world. This is called the diversity in feeling.[2]

"And what is the result of feeling? One who feels a feeling produces a corresponding state of existence, on the side of merit or demerit. This is called the result of feeling.

"And what is the cessation of feeling? From the cessation of contact is the cessation of feeling; and just this noble eightfold path — right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration — is the way leading to the cessation of feeling.

"Now when a disciple of the noble ones discerns feeling in this way, the cause by which feeling comes into play in this way, the diversity of feeling in this way, the result of feeling in this way, the cessation of feeling in this way, & the path of practice leading to the cessation of feeling in this way, then he discerns this penetrative holy life as the cessation of feeling.

"'Feeling should be known. The cause by which feeling comes into play... The diversity in feeling... The result of feeling... The cessation of feeling... The path of practice for the cessation of feeling should be known.' Thus it has been said, and in reference to this was it said.

[3] "'Perception should be known. The cause by which perception comes into play... The diversity in perception... The result of perception... The cessation of perception... The path of practice for the cessation of perception should be known.' Thus it has been said. In reference to what was it said?

"There are these six kinds of perception:[3] the perception of form, the perception of sound, the perception of aroma, the perception of flavor, the perception of tactile sensation, the perception of ideas.

"And what is the cause by which perception comes into play? Contact is the cause by which perception comes into play.

"And what is the diversity in perception? Perception with regard to forms is one thing, perception with regard to sounds is another, perception with regard to aromas is another, perception with regard to flavors is another, perception with regard to tactile sensations is another, perception with regard to ideas is another. This is called the diversity in perception.

"And what is the result of perception? Perception has expression as its result, I tell you. However a person perceives something, that is how he expresses it: 'I have this sort of perception.' This is called the result of perception.

"And what is the cessation of perception? From the cessation of contact is the cessation of perception; and just this noble eightfold path — right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration — is the way leading to the cessation of perception.

"Now when a disciple of the noble ones discerns perception in this way, the cause by which perception comes into play in this way, the diversity of perception in this way, the result of perception in this way, the cessation of perception in this way, & the path of practice leading to the cessation of perception in this way, then he discerns this penetrative holy life as the cessation of perception.

"'Perception should be known. The cause by which perception comes into play... The diversity in perception... The result of perception... The cessation of perception... The path of practice for the cessation of perception should be known.' Thus it has been said, and in reference to this was it said.

[4] "'Fermentations should be known. The cause by which fermentations come into play... The diversity in fermentations... The result of fermentations... The cessation of fermentations... The path of practice for the cessation of fermentations should be known.' Thus it has been said. In reference to what was it said?

"There are these three kinds of fermentations: the fermentation of sensuality, the fermentation of becoming, the fermentation of ignorance.

"And what is the cause by which fermentations come into play? Ignorance is the cause by which fermentations come into play.

"And what is the diversity in fermentations? There are fermentations that lead to hell, those that lead to the animal womb, those that lead to the realm of the hungry shades, those that lead to the human world, those that lead to the world of the devas. This is called the diversity in fermentations.

"And what is the result of fermentations? One who is immersed in ignorance produces a corresponding state of existence, on the side of merit or demerit. This is called the result of fermentations.

"And what is the cessation of fermentations? From the cessation of ignorance is the cessation of fermentations; and just this noble eightfold path — right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration — is the way leading to the cessation of fermentations.

"Now when a disciple of the noble ones discerns fermentations in this way, the cause by which fermentations come into play in this way, the diversity of fermentations in this way, the result of fermentations in this way, the cessation of fermentations in this way, & the path of practice leading to the cessation of fermentations in this way, then he discerns this penetrative holy life as the cessation of fermentations.

"'Fermentations should be known. The cause by which fermentations come into play... The diversity in fermentations... The result of fermentations... The cessation of fermentations... The path of practice for the cessation of fermentations should be known.' Thus it has been said, and in reference to this was it said.

[5] "'Kamma should be known. The cause by which kamma comes into play should be known. The diversity in kamma should be known. The result of kamma should be known. The cessation of kamma should be known. The path of practice for the cessation of kamma should be known.' Thus it has been said. In reference to what was it said?

"Intention, I tell you, is kamma. Intending, one does kamma by way of body, speech, & intellect.

"And what is the cause by which kamma comes into play? Contact is the cause by which kamma comes into play.

"And what is the diversity in kamma? There is kamma to be experienced in hell, kamma to be experienced in the realm of common animals, kamma to be experienced in the realm of the hungry shades, kamma to be experienced in the human world, kamma to be experienced in the world of the devas. This is called the diversity in kamma.

"And what is the result of kamma? The result of kamma is of three sorts, I tell you: that which arises right here & now, that which arises later [in this lifetime], and that which arises following that. This is called the result of kamma.

"And what is the cessation of kamma? From the cessation of contact is the cessation of kamma; and just this noble eightfold path — right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration — is the path of practice leading to the cessation of kamma.

"Now when a disciple of the noble ones discerns kamma in this way, the cause by which kamma comes into play in this way, the diversity of kamma in this way, the result of kamma in this way, the cessation of kamma in this way, & the path of practice leading to the cessation of kamma in this way, then he discerns this penetrative holy life as the cessation of kamma.

"'Kamma should be known. The cause by which kamma comes into play... The diversity in kamma... The result of kamma... The cessation of kamma... The path of practice for the cessation of kamma should be known.' Thus it has been said, and in reference to this was it said.

[6] "'Stress should be known. The cause by which stress comes into play should be known. The diversity in stress should be known. The result of stress should be known. The cessation of stress should be known. The path of practice for the cessation of stress should be known.' Thus it has been said. In reference to what was it said?

Birth is stress, aging is stress, death is stress; sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair are stress; association with the unbeloved is stress; separation from the loved is stress; not getting what is wanted is stress. In short, the five clinging-aggregates are stress.

"And what is the cause by which stress comes into play? Craving is the cause by which stress comes into play.

"And what is the diversity in stress? There is major stress & minor, slowly fading & quickly fading. This is called the diversity in stress.

"And what is the result of stress? There are some cases in which a person overcome with pain, his mind exhausted, grieves, mourns, laments, beats his breast, & becomes bewildered. Or one overcome with pain, his mind exhausted, comes to search outside, 'Who knows a way or two to stop this pain?' I tell you, monks, that stress results either in bewilderment or in search. This is called the result of stress.

"And what is the cessation of stress? From the cessation of craving is the cessation of stress; and just this noble eightfold path — right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration — is the path of practice leading to the cessation of stress.

"Now when a disciple of the noble ones discerns stress in this way, the cause by which stress comes into play in this way, the diversity of stress in this way, the result of stress in this way, the cessation of stress in this way, & the path of practice leading to the cessation of stress in this way, then he discerns this penetrative holy life as the cessation of stress.

"'Stress should be known. The cause by which stress comes into play... The diversity in stress... The result of stress... The cessation of stress... The path of practice for the cessation of stress should be known.' Thus it was said, and in reference to this was it said.

"And this is the penetrative explanation that is a Dhamma explanation."

Notes

1. Asava.

2. See The Wings to Awakening, passage §179.

3.I.e., mental labels.
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Re: AN 6.63: Nibbedhika Sutta — Penetrative

Post by mikenz66 »

Comments from Bhikkhu Bodhi


“Bhikkhus, I will teach you a penetrative exposition of the
Dhamma.
  • Nibbedhikapariyāyaṃ vo bhikkhave dhammapariyāyaṃ desessāmi.
    Mp: “A penetrative exposition is one that penetrates and splits
    the mass of greed, [hatred, and delusion] that had not been pene-
    trated and split before.”
(5) “Kamma should be understood; the source and origin of
kamma should be understood; the diversity of kamma should
be understood; the result of kamma should be understood; the
cessation of kamma should be understood; the way leading to
the cessation of kamma should be understood.
  • The text alternates between singular and plural forms of kamma. I
    have used the singular, which sounds more natural in English.
“There are, bhikkhus, these five objects of sensual plea-
sure: forms cognizable by the eye that are wished for, desired,
agreeable, pleasing, connected with sensual pleasure, tantaliz-
ing; sounds cognizable by the ear . . . odors cognizable by the
nose . . . tastes cognizable by the tongue . . . tactile objects cogni-
zable by the body that are wished for, desired, agreeable, pleas-
ing, connected with sensual pleasure, tantalizing. However,
these are not sensual pleasures; in the Noble One’s discipline,
these are called ‘objects of sensual pleasure.’ A person’s sensual
pleasure is lustful intention.
  • Contrary to all three editions, I regard the first occurrence of
    saṅkapparāgo purisassa kāmo as either prose or a line of a familiar
    verse being quoted in the prose. The following verse will then be
    a normal verse of four lines rather than one of five lines. See SN
    1:34, I 22
    , where the verse occurs with only four lines. Mp explains
    saṅkapparāgo as “lust arisen by way of intention” (saṅkappavasena
    uppannarāgo). Kāmasaṅkappa is one of the three types of unwhole-
    some thought, and it is clear from the context that this is what is
    meant. For further discussion, see CDB 366, note 72. The verse is
    not included in the Chinese parallel, MĀ 111.
    https://suttacentral.net/an6.63
“And what, bhikkhus, is the source and origin of sensual
  • Mp explains this as the coexistent contact (sahajātaphassa).
“And what is the result of sensual pleasures? One produces
an individual existence that corresponds with whatever [sense
pleasures] one desires and which may be the consequence
either of merit or demerit.
  • Mp: “One desiring celestial sensual pleasures, by fulfilling good
    conduct, is reborn in the deva world [and acquires] an indi-
    vidual existence that is a consequence of merit. By engaging in
    misconduct, one is reborn in the plane of misery [and acquires]
    an individual existence that is a consequence of demerit.”
“When, bhikkhus, a noble disciple thus understands sen-
sual pleasures, the source and origin of sensual pleasures, the
diversity of sensual pleasures, the result of sensual pleasures,
the cessation of sensual pleasures, and the way leading to the
cessation of sensual pleasures, he understands this penetrative
spiritual life to be the cessation of sensual pleasures.
  • Regarding this last phrase, Mp says that it is just the spiritual life
    of the path (brahmacariyasaṅkhāto maggo va) that is called the ces-
    sation of sensual pleasures. It will be observed that each section
    follows the pattern of the four noble truths, with two additions:
    diversity (vemattatā) and result (vipāka).
“And what is the diversity of feelings? There is worldly
pleasant feeling[1415], there is spiritual pleasant feeling; there is
worldly painful feeling, there is spiritual painful feeling; there is
worldly neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling, there is spiritual
neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling. This is called the diversity
of feelings.
  • [1415]Sāmisā. Mp: “Associated with the bait of the defilements”
    (kilesāmisa­sampayuttā).
“And what is the result of perceptions? I say that percep-
tions result in expression. [1416] In whatever way one perceives
something, in just that way one expresses oneself, [saying:] ‘I
was percipient of such and such.’ This is called the result of
perception.
  • [1416] Vohāravepakkaṃ . . . saññaṃ vadāmi. Mp: “Expression, consisting
    in talk, is the result of perception.”
“It is volition, bhikkhus, that I call kamma. For having
willed, one acts by body, speech, or mind.
  • Cetanā ‘haṃ bhikkhave kammaṃ vadāmi. This should probably be
    understood to mean that volition is a necessary factor in creat-
    ing kamma, not that volition on its own invariably and in all
    instances creates kamma. It can thus be seen as a counterfoil
    to the Jain position that any action, even an unintentional one,
    creates kamma. The Chinese parallel, MĀ 111, at T I 600a 23–24 ,
    says: “How does one understand kamma? There are two kinds
    of kamma: intention and the kamma [created] when one has
    intended” ( 云何知業。謂有二業思.已思業。 ).
“And what is the diversity of kamma? There is kamma to be
experienced in hell; there is kamma to be experienced in the
animal realm; there is kamma to be experienced in the realm
of afflicted spirits; there is kamma to be experienced in the
human world; and there is kamma to be experienced in the
deva world.
  • This statement should be understood in the sense that the results
    of kamma are to be experienced in their respective realms.
“And what is the result of kamma? The result of kamma, I
say, is threefold: [to be experienced] in this very life, or in the
[next] rebirth, or on some subsequent occasion. This is called
the result of kamma.
  • See p. 1639, note 372, and p. 1666, note 547:
    • (1) “Any kamma, bhikkhus, fashioned through greed, born of
      greed, caused by greed, originated by greed, ripens wherever
      the individual is reborn. Wherever that kamma ripens, it is there
      that one experiences its result, either in this very life, or in the
      [next] rebirth, or on some subsequent occasion.

      Mp says: “This is stated to show that the kamma is [of the type] either
      to be experienced in this present life, or to be experienced follow-
      ing rebirth, or to be experienced in some subsequent existence.”
      For an Abhidhamma explanation of this triad, see CMA 205.

      Some scholars have argued from the variant readings that
      only two alternatives are involved: either in this life or upon
      rebirth. However, I translate in accordance with the commen-
      tarial understanding. While the commentaries may be impos-
      ing a later interpretation on more archaic texts that asserted
      only two ways in which kamma can ripen, as a translator I feel
      responsible to the text that has been transmitted rather than
      to theories about a more archaic original. The recognition of a
      threefold ripening of kamma is not exclusive to the Theravāda
      school but is also found in the treatises of the Sarvāstivāda Abhi-
      dharma system. Definitions of the three types—for example, in
      the Abhidharma Mahāvibhāṣā Śāstra at T XXVII 592a 22 –593b 8 ,
      and in the Abhidharmakośa at T XXIX 81c 10–16 —are exactly the
      same as in the Pāli tradition and thus likely precede the division
      of the schools.
    The Chinese parallel,
    MĀ 111, has here the fourfold distinction of kamma found in
    4:232–33. But MĀ 15 (at T I 437b 26 ) speaks of only two kinds of
    results, in this life or in a later life, without a third alternative.
“And what, bhikkhus, is the cessation of kamma? With the
cessation of contact there is cessation of kamma.
  • This should probably be understood in the sense that, because
    contact is the condition for intention and kamma can be explained
    as intention, contact is therefore the condition for kamma.
“And what is the result of suffering? Here, someone over-
come by suffering, with a mind obsessed by it, sorrows, lan-
guishes, and laments; he weeps beating his breast and becomes
confused. Or else, overcome by suffering, with a mind obsessed
by it, he embarks upon a search outside, saying: ‘Who knows
one or two words for putting an end to this suffering?’ [1421]Suf-
fering, I say, results either in confusion or in a search. This is
called the result of suffering.
  • [1421] Ko ekapadaṃ dvipadaṃ jānāti imassa dukkhassa nirodhāya. Mp: “The
    meaning is: ‘Who knows a mantra, a one-word or two-word
    mantra?’” The Chinese parallel at T I 600b 17–18 uses the character
    呪 (= 咒 ), meaning “mantra.”
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Re: AN 6.63: Nibbedhika Sutta — Penetrative

Post by santa100 »

Further analysis from Prof. Piya Tan
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