A question to (Abhidhamma) experts: ariya-lokuttara-sacca and ariya-lokuttara-paññā

Textual analysis and comparative discussion on early Buddhist sects and scriptures.
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sphairos
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A question to (Abhidhamma) experts: ariya-lokuttara-sacca and ariya-lokuttara-paññā

Post by sphairos »

I am currently working on a fascinating Sanskrit Buddhist manuscript from ancient Gandhāra, and I am puzzled with a few terms in it.

It was likely a canonical Buddhist text of Sarvāstivāda or Mūlasarvāstivāda. The terms in question are ārya-lokottara-satya and ārya-lokottara-prajñā.

These are extremely rare terms, that I find just a handful of times in Pāli, Sanskrit, Chinese and Tibetan Buddhist literatures,

These are most likely Abhidharma terms, so I would be most grateful if Abhidhamma experts said something about them.

I, of course, did all possible searching through the Pāli collection and other canons.

In the Pāli I don't find ariya-lokuttara-sacca and ariya-lokuttara-paññā at all, and only a few times lokuttara-sacca and lokuttara-paññā. They are always about lokuttara-magga and lokuttara-phāla, becoming an ariya, as far as I can tell.

But I find 出世聖慧 (ārya-lokottara-prajñā) in the Sarvāstivāda Abhidharma treatise Abhidharmasaṃgītiparyāya (阿毘達磨集異門足論):

T1536 阿毘達磨集異門足論
尊者舍利子說 唐 玄奘譯 (660~663)

(T26n1536_p0375c10 CBETA)

1. 伽羅得內心止不得增上慧法觀?答:若補特伽羅得世間四靜慮、不得出世聖慧。何等補特伽羅得增上慧法觀、不得內心止?答:若補特伽羅得出世
2. 聖慧。何等補特伽羅得增上慧法觀、不得內心止?答:若補特伽羅得出世聖慧、不得世間四靜慮。何等補特伽羅不得內心止亦不得增上慧法觀?答
3. 得內心止亦不得增上慧法觀?答:若補特伽羅不得世間四靜慮亦不得出世聖慧。何等補特伽羅得內心止亦得增上慧法觀?答:若補特伽羅得世間四
4. 特伽羅得內心止亦得增上慧法觀?答:若補特伽羅得世間四靜慮亦得出世聖慧。如說世間四靜慮相應,心住、等住、近住、安住,不散不亂攝止等
5. 住、近住、安住,不散不亂攝止等持心一境性者,此顯內心止。如說出世聖慧所攝,於法揀擇、極揀擇、最極揀擇,解了、等了、近了、遍了,機

English transl. (Tzungkuen Wen, 2009. A Study of Sukkhavipassaka in Pāli Buddhism. 2009):

"What kind of person obtains inner mental serenity, but not the higher wisdom of insight into
the dharmas? Answer: The person who obtains the four “mundane jhānas” (世間靜慮), but
not the “noble supramundane wisdom” (出世聖慧). What kind of person obtains the higher
wisdom of insight into the dharmas but not inner mental serenity? Answer: The person who
obtains the “noble supramundane wisdom”, but not the four “mundane jhānas”. What kind
of person does not obtain the higher wisdom of insight into the dharmas nor inner mental
serenity? Answer: The person who does not obtain the “noble supramundane wisdom” and
the four “mundane jhānas”. What kind of person obtains the higher wisdom of insight into
the dharmas and inner mental serenity? Answer: The person who obtains the “noble
supramundane wisdom” and the four “mundane jhānas”."

This passage has a close parallel in the Pāli Puggalapaññatti, although lacking “noble supramundane wisdom”:

"187. Kathañca puggalo lābhī hoti ajjhattaṃ cetosamathassa, na lābhī adhipaññādhammavipassanāya? Idhekacco puggalo lābhī hoti rūpasahagatānaṃ vā arūpasahagatānaṃ vā samāpattīnaṃ, na lābhī lokuttaramaggassa vā phalassa vā. Evaṃ puggalo lābhī hoti ajjhattaṃ cetosamathassa, na lābhī adhipaññādhammavipassanāya.

Kathañca puggalo lābhī hoti adhipaññādhammavipassanāya, na lābhī ajjhattaṃ cetosamathassa? Idhekacco puggalo lābhī hoti lokuttaramaggassa vā phalassa vā, na lābhī rūpasahagatānaṃ vā arūpasahagatānaṃ vā samāpattīnaṃ. Evaṃ puggalo lābhī hoti adhipaññādhammavipassanāya, na lābhī ajjhattaṃ cetosamathassa.

Kathañca puggalo lābhī ceva hoti ajjhattaṃ cetosamathassa, lābhī ca adhipaññādhammavipassanāya? Idhekacco puggalo lābhī hoti rūpasahagatānaṃ vā arūpasahagatānaṃ vā samāpattīnaṃ, lābhī lokuttaramaggassa vā phalassa vā. Evaṃ puggalo lābhī ceva hoti ajjhattaṃ cetosamathassa, lābhī ca adhipaññādhammavipassanāya.

Kathañca puggalo neva lābhī hoti ajjhattaṃ cetosamathassa, na lābhī adhipaññādhammavipassanāya? Idhekacco puggalo neva lābhī hoti rūpasahagatānaṃ vā arūpasahagatānaṃ vā samāpattīnaṃ, na lābhī lokuttaramaggassa vā phalassa vā. Evaṃ puggalo neva lābhī hoti ajjhattaṃ cetosamathassa, na lābhī adhipaññādhammavipassanāya."

Reteling in Wen (2009):

"In the chapter of Catukapuggalapaññatti, the Puggalapaññatti mentions four types of people:
(1) one who obtains the inner mental serenity (ajjhattaṃ cetosamatha) but not the higher wisdom of
insight into the dhammas (abhipaññā- dhammavipassanā); (2) one who obtains the higher wisdom
of insight into the dhammas but not the inner mental serenity; (3) one who obtains neither; and (4)
one who obtains both."

Translation of the second passage in Wen (2009):

"How does a person obtain the higher wisdom of insight into the dhammas but not inner
mental serenity? Here some person is an obtainer of the supramundane path or fruit, but not
of the attainment connected with materiality or immateriality. In this way, the person obtains
the higher wisdom of insight into the dhammas but not inner mental serenity."

I also find the term ārya-lokottara-prajñā / 出世聖慧 a couple of times in the Mahāyāna (mostly Yogācāra-affiliated) scriptures in Sanskrit, Tibetan and Chinese, but it doesn't explain much.

The term lokottara-satya / lokuttara-sacca also can be found in a few passages of the 解脫道論, Vimuttimagga:

(T32n1648_p0452b29 ff. CBETA)

1. 因故成四。問:云何?世諦果苦,集世諦因,果滅,出世諦果。道,出世諦因。是故四,不三不五。復次應知、應斷、應證、應修,以四句故成
2. 為世間出世間果因故成四。問:云何?世諦果苦,集世諦因,果滅,出世諦果。道,出世諦因。是故四,不三不五。復次應知、應斷、應證、應
3. 、以空義。如是以一可知。問:云何以種種可知?答:二諦,世諦、出世諦。世諦者,有漏、有結、有縛、有流、有厄、有蓋、可觸、有取、有
4. 結、有縛、有流、有厄、有蓋、可觸、有取、有煩惱,所謂苦及集。出世諦者,無漏、無結、無縛、無流、無厄、無蓋、不可觸、無取、無煩惱

Translation of relevant parts:

(Vimuttimagga, Path of Freedom. 1961. p. 274):

"Q. Why are four Noble Truths taught and not three or five? A. (If
three or five were taught) all might be doubted. These are the consequences
and causes of the mundane and the supramundane. Therefore they are four.
Q. What is the consequence (and what, the cause) of mundane truth 1 A. ill
and origin are the consequence and cause of mundance truth. Cessation is
the consequence of supramundane truth. The Path is the cause of supramundane
truth. Therefore four and not three or five are taught. And again,
because of the four sentences: "One should comprehend, one should abandon,
one should realize, one should practise",1 there are four."

(Vimuttimagga, Path of Freedom. 1961. p. 278):

"THROUGH DIFFERENCE
Q. How, through difference? A. There are two truths: mundane and
supramundane truth.2 Mundane truth is canker, fetter, tangle, flood, yoke,
hindrance, contact, clinging, defilement.3 It is called ill and origin. Supramundane
truth is without canker, without fetter, without tangle, without
flood, without yoke, without hindrance, without contact, without clinging,
without defilement. It is Cessation and the Path. Three Truths are conditioned.
The truth of Cessation is unconditioned.4 Three Truths are without*
form. The Truth of 111 is with and without form.5 The Truth of Origin is
unskilful. The Truth of the Path is skilful. The Truth of Cessation is indeterminate.
The Truth of 111 is skilful, unskilful and indeterminate.6 The Truth
of 111 enables to understand; the Truth of Origin enables to remove; the Truth
of Cessation enables to attain; and the Truth of the Path enables to practise.7
Thus should these be known through difference."

Lokuttarā saccā and lokuttaraṃ saccaṃ I find a couple of times in the Abhidhamma treatises:

(Dhammasaṅgaṇī, PTS 72)

"Vīsati mahānayā

357. Katame dhammā kusalā? Yasmiṃ samaye lokuttaraṃ maggaṃ bhāveti…pe… lokuttaraṃ satipaṭṭhānaṃ bhāveti…pe… lokuttaraṃ sammappadhānaṃ bhāveti…pe… lokuttaraṃ iddhipādaṃ bhāveti…pe… lokuttaraṃ indriyaṃ bhāveti…pe… lokuttaraṃ balaṃ bhāveti…pe… lokuttaraṃ bojjhaṅgaṃ bhāveti…pe… lokuttaraṃ saccaṃ bhāveti…pe… lokuttaraṃ samathaṃ bhāveti…pe… lokuttaraṃ dhammaṃ bhāveti…pe… lokuttaraṃ khandhaṃ bhāveti…pe… lokuttaraṃ āyatanaṃ bhāveti…pe… lokuttaraṃ dhātuṃ bhāveti…pe… lokuttaraṃ āhāraṃ bhāveti…pe… lokuttaraṃ phassaṃ bhāveti…pe… lokuttaraṃ vedanaṃ bhāveti…pe… lokuttaraṃ saññaṃ bhāveti…pe… lokuttaraṃ cetanaṃ bhāveti…pe… lokuttaraṃ cittaṃ bhāveti niyyānikaṃ apacayagāmiṃ diṭṭhigatānaṃ pahānāya paṭhamāya bhūmiyā pattiyā vivicceva kāmehi…pe… paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati dukkhapaṭipadaṃ dandhābhiññaṃ, tasmiṃ samaye phasso hoti…pe… avikkhepo hoti…pe… ime dhammā kusalā."

(Vibhaṅga, PTS 115)

"Tīṇi saccāni arūpāni. Dukkhasaccaṃ siyā rūpaṃ, siyā arūpaṃ. Dve saccā lokiyā. Dve saccā lokuttarā; kenaci viññeyyā, kenaci na viññeyyā."

But ārya-lokottara-satya (出世聖諦) only a couple of times in a few Mahāyāna texts, also without any explanation.

I would be most grateful for any clarification with regard to these terms.
Last edited by sphairos on Sun Apr 11, 2021 10:17 am, edited 1 time in total.
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SarathW
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Re: A question to (Abhidharma) experts: ariya-lokuttara-sacca and ariya-lokuttara-paññā

Post by SarathW »

Hi
I am not an Abhidhamma expert.
However, I like you to investigate the last two limbs of the Noble Tenfold Path namely Right Knowledge and Right release.
My guess is that ariya-lokuttara-paññā is Right Knowledge and ariya-lokuttara-sacca is the right release.
I may be wrong but some food for thought.
The reason for my argument is that ariya-lokuttara-sacca seems the unconditioned and ariya-lokuttara-paññā seems the conditioned.
“As the lamp consumes oil, the path realises Nibbana”
sphairos
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Re: A question to (Abhidharma) experts: ariya-lokuttara-sacca and ariya-lokuttara-paññā

Post by sphairos »

SarathW wrote: Sun Apr 11, 2021 9:45 am Hi
I am not an Abhidhamma expert.
However, I like you to investigate the last two limbs of the Noble Tenfold Path namely Right Knowledge and Right release.
My guess is that ariya-lokuttara-paññā is Right Knowledge and ariya-lokuttara-sacca is the right release.
I may be wrong but some food for thought.
The reason for my argument is that ariya-lokuttara-sacca seems the unconditioned and ariya-lokuttara-paññā seems the conditioned.
Very interesting Sarath, thanks for the suggestion! I will think about it.
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Re: A question to (Abhidhamma) experts: ariya-lokuttara-sacca and ariya-lokuttara-paññā

Post by DooDoot »

In MN 140, panna and sacca appear not synonymous.
The foundations of wisdom, truth, generosity, and peace.

Paññādhiṭṭhāno, saccādhiṭṭhāno, cāgādhiṭṭhāno, upasamādhiṭṭhāno.

MN 140
In MN 140, it appears wisdom refers to the understanding that results in dispassion & cessation, as follows:
This should be truly seen with right understanding like this: ‘This is not mine, I am not this, this is not my self.’
‘Taṁ netaṁ mama nesohamasmi na meso attā’ti—evametaṁ yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya daṭṭhabbaṁ.

When you truly see with right understanding, you reject the earth element, detaching the mind from the earth element.
Evametaṁ yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya disvā pathavīdhātuyā nibbindati, pathavīdhātuyā cittaṁ virājeti.

For this is the ultimate noble wisdom, namely,
Esā hi, bhikkhu, paramā ariyā paññā yadidaṁ—

the knowledge of the ending of suffering.
sabbadukkhakkhaye ñāṇaṁ.
Where as "truth" appears ontological, referring to the undeceptive nature of Nibbana:
For this is the ultimate noble wisdom, namely,
Esā hi, bhikkhu, paramā ariyā paññā yadidaṁ—

the knowledge of the ending of suffering.
sabbadukkhakkhaye ñāṇaṁ.

Their freedom, being founded on truth, is unshakable.
Tassa sā vimutti sacce ṭhitā akuppā hoti.

For that which is false has a deceptive nature, while that which is true has an undeceptive nature—extinguishment.
Tañhi, bhikkhu, musā yaṁ mosadhammaṁ, taṁ saccaṁ yaṁ amosadhammaṁ nibbānaṁ.

Therefore a mendicant thus endowed is endowed with the ultimate foundation of truth.
Tasmā evaṁ samannāgato bhikkhu iminā paramena saccādhiṭṭhānena samannāgato hoti.

For this is the ultimate noble truth, namely,
Etañhi, bhikkhu, paramaṁ ariyasaccaṁ yadidaṁ—

that which has an undeceptive nature—extinguishment.
amosadhammaṁ nibbānaṁ.
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sphairos
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Re: A question to (Abhidhamma) experts: ariya-lokuttara-sacca and ariya-lokuttara-paññā

Post by sphairos »

anyone?
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Re: A question to (Abhidhamma) experts: ariya-lokuttara-sacca and ariya-lokuttara-paññā

Post by sphairos »

Someone?
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Re: A question to (Abhidhamma) experts: ariya-lokuttara-sacca and ariya-lokuttara-paññā

Post by Srilankaputra »

Not an expert,

It may have something to do with the nature of seeing(dassana) the 'truth' of the 'Four Noble Truths'.
When there is right immersion, one who has fulfilled right immersion has fulfilled a vital condition for true knowledge and vision.
_sammāsamādhimhi sati sammāsamādhisampannassa upanisasampannaṁ hoti yathābhūtañāṇadassanaṁ

When there is true knowledge and vision, one who has fulfilled true knowledge and vision has fulfilled a vital condition for disillusionment.
_yathābhūtañāṇadassane sati yathābhūtañāṇadassanasampannassa upanisasampannā hoti nibbidā

When there is disillusionment, one who has fulfilled disillusionment has fulfilled a vital condition for dispassion.
_nibbidāya sati nibbidāsampannassa upanisasampanno hoti virāgo

When there is dispassion, one who has fulfilled dispassion has fulfilled a vital condition for knowledge and vision of freedom.
_virāge sati virāgasampannassa upanisasampannaṁ hoti vimuttiñāṇadassanaṁ.
https://suttacentral.net/an11.3/en/sujato

Here, 'virāga' is another way of stating the Lokuttara-magga. It's the Lokuttara-magga that enables a direct experience of the Nibbana-dhatu and gives the 'dassana' of the Four Noble Truths. Anything short of this is worldly understanding. Conjecture.

Lokāmisaṃ pajahe santipekkho ti
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