Metta Pervasions and Jhana in Vism.

The cultivation of calm or tranquility and the development of concentration
suspence772
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Metta Pervasions and Jhana in Vism.

Post by suspence772 »

The Visuddhimagga details the cultivation of each of the four Divine Abidings following a similar path, and I wish to confirm my understanding with others on this board.

The user is first instructed to pervade metta to four to five persons, usually being the self, the dear, the neutral, and the hostile in that order. The user is not to move on to the next person until their metta is "malleable and wieldy" (Vism. IX.12 299). The sign to cultivate is the "breaking down of the barriers" by practicing mental impartiality towards these four persons until one reaches jhana:
40. When his resentment towards that hostile person has been thus allayed, then he can turn his mind with loving-kindness towards that person too, just as towards the one who is dear, the very dear friend, and the neutral person. Then he should break down the barriers by practicing loving-kindness over and over again, accomplishing mental impartiality towards the four persons, that is to say, himself, the dear person, the neutral person and the hostile person. (Vism. IX.44 308)
And:
43. Thus the sign and access are obtained by this bhikkhu simultaneously with the breaking down of the barriers. But when breaking down of the barriers has been effected, he reaches absorption in the way described under the earth kasina without trouble by cultivating, developing, and repeatedly practicing that same sign.

At this point he has attained the first jhána, which abandons five factors, possesses five factors, is good in three ways, is endowed with ten characteristics, and is accompanied by loving-kindness. And when that has been obtained, then by cultivating, developing, and repeatedly practicing that same sign, he successively reaches the second and third jhánas in the fourfold system, and the second, third and fourth in the fivefold system. (Vism. IX.43 308)
Once first jhana is reached and the barriers have been broken, the user has developed "versatility" with the sign and stops pervading it to the four persons. Instead, the user pervades the sign in all directions (radiate?):
44. Now, it is by means of one of these jhánas beginning with the first that he “Dwells pervading (intent upon) one direction with his heart endued with lovingkindness, likewise the second direction, likewise the third direction, likewise the fourth direction, and so above, below, and around; everywhere and equally he dwells pervading the entire world with his heart endued with lovingkindness, abundant, exalted, measureless, free from enmity, and free from affliction” (Vibh 272; D I 250). For this versatility comes about only in one whose consciousness has reached absorption in the first jhána and the rest. (Vism. IX.44 309)
These pervasions are referenced as the “unspecified pervasion in five ways", the "specified pervasion in seven ways", and the "directional pervasion in ten ways” which equals 132 directions plus four absorptions each to equal 528 directions total (Vism. IX.49 309). The directions and beings referenced in the above passage are used to denote a general sense of "everywhere" and "everything", respectively:
47. Everywhere, etc., is said for the purpose of showing unspecified pervasion. Herein, everywhere means in all places. Equally (sabbattatáya): to all classed as inferior, medium, superior, friendly, hostile, neutral, etc., just as to oneself (attatá); equality with oneself (atta-samatá) without making the distinction, “This is another being,” is what is meant. Or alternatively, equally (sabbattatáya) is with the whole state of the mind; not reserving even a little, is what is meant. Entire (sabbávant): possessing all beings (sabbasattavant); associated with all beings, is the meaning. World is the world of beings. (Vism. IX.47 309, 310)
Furthermore:
55. And all the remaining [terms] should be understood as synonyms for “all beings” used in accordance with ordinary speech as in the case of the term “beings.” Of course, there are other synonyms too for all “beings,” such as all “folks,” all “souls,” etc.; still it is for clarity’s sake that “The mind-deliverance of loving-kindness is [practiced] with unspecified pervasion in five ways” is said and that only these five are mentioned.

56. Those who would have it that there is not only a mere verbal difference between “beings,” “breathing things,” etc., but also an actual difference in meaning, are contradicted by the mention of unspecified pervasion. So instead of taking the meaning in that way, the unspecified pervasion with lovingkindness is done in any one of these five ways. (Vism. IX.55 311, IX.56 312)
Therefore, the user pervades in all directions until one reaches third jhana, then the user switches to the next divine abiding and practices the same steps, cultivating the sign. The user practices the pervasions for each abiding, but the Vism. uses "understood" to denote this. For karuna:
83. After that, the versatility consisting in the unspecified pervasion in five ways, the specified pervasion in seven ways, and the directional pervasion in ten ways, and the advantages described as “He sleeps in comfort,” etc., should be understood in the same way as given under loving-kindness. (Vism. IX.83 316)
For mudita:
Next, the versatility consisting in unspecified pervasion in five ways, specified pervasion in seven ways, and directional pervasion in ten ways, and also the advantages described as “He sleeps in comfort,” etc., should be understood in the same way as stated under loving-kindness. (Vism. IX.87 317)
For uppekha:
But after that the versatility and the obtaining of advantages should be understood in the same way as described under loving-kindness. (Vism. IX.90 318)
Once third jhana is reached in mudita, the user emerges from third jhana to cultivate uppekha - meaning, the user is not in jhana while first cultivating uppekha:
88. One who wants to develop equanimity must have already obtained the triple or quadruple jhána in loving-kindness, and so on. He should emerge from the third jhána [in the fourfold reckoning], after he has made it familiar... (Vism. IX.88 318)
The user then cultivates the sign till fourth jhana is reached. It should be noted that due to the nature of equanimity, the user will feel neither pleasure nor pain and thus would jump straight to fourth jhana from access:
But how then? Does this arise in one in whom the third jhána has already arisen on the basis of the earth kasina, etc.? It does not. Why not? Because of the dissimilarity of the object. It arises only in one in whom the third jhána has arisen on the basis of loving-kindness, etc., because the object is similar. (Vism. IX.90 318)
--------------------
QUESTIONS

Is my understanding correct in regards to the procedures and the interpretation of the pervasions? I ask because there comes a point in nearly every metta bhavana instruction where the user is instructed to literally pervade metta in all 132 directions to all beings, specifying each direction and each being to be pervaded. This obviously is the work of vitakka and therefore can't be so in second jhana onwards.

My understanding is that once the barriers have been broken, the metta (or other abiding) has become "versatile" enough to give-up towards the four persons and instead be pervaded to all beings in all directions. This would allow vitakka and vicarra to exist when first practicing in the first jhana, and later desist in the second jhana onwards. Otherwise, how else would one get to third jhana?

My hunch is that the pervasions use repetition to provide tacit emphasis that the user is to pervade the abidings "everywhere" towards "everything" in order to further develop the sign (e.g., breaking down the barriers). The use of the semicolon in the Vibhanga 272 reference connecting the directional pervasions and the unspecified pervasions further drives this home since these two are similar in their purpose of emphasizing all directions and all beings. Furthermore, the original passage uses "Thus" instead of a semicolon:
[272] The four illimitables — Herein a bhikkhu dwells with mind accompanied by loving-kindness, suffusing one direction. Also a second direction. Also a third direction. Also a fourth direction. Thus, above, below, around, everywhere, identifying himself with all, he dwells suffusing the world of all (beings) with mind accompanied by loving-kindness, extensive, sublime, unlimited, without enmity, without illwill. (Vibh 272)
But with this being a hunch, this is only based on speculation and would love to see if this is incorrect and why. Venerable Sujiva in his book Metta Bhavana states the following about unspecified pervasion:
Definitely one cannot visualise all beings. One has only to bear in mind just what it means. It is as if one does not have any object, only the metta for all beings is developed. As concentration deepens one cannot help but notice that it often occurs in an expanded nature, and is very light and blissful. (Page 45)
Venerable Sujiva details a similar method for Brahma Vihara bhavana by using the abidings to gain mastery of the jhanas; one is to only stick with one of the four persons at a time until third jhana is reached, then switch to the other person, then after third jhana is reached with all persons, the pervasions are cultivated. Mastering the jhanas will make it easier for one to enter fourth jhana from uppekha, as he states the following:
However equanimity meditation enters only into the fifth form absorption owing to its indifferent feeling and so on. Hence it is possible only when the other three divine abidings have been mastered. If one has not, one will at most reach access concentration. Nevertheless it can also help us balance our minds in our daily lives. (Page 76)
Anyway, let me know what you think and I appreciate all replies!

With metta (in unspecified pervasions),


NOTE: This is a similar question posted on the below two topics, but I'm posting another thread about this with more textual reference in hopes of understanding this process better since I never reached a conclusion reading the other threads:
viewtopic.php?t=30856
viewtopic.php?t=36302
suspence772
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Re: Metta Pervasions and Jhana in Vism.

Post by suspence772 »

Bumping thread. Apologies for the long post but I hope this helps others with their practice.

For a TLDR: pervasions in all directions are only done after reaching first jhana which would allow for vitakka and vicara to desist in order to reach second and third jhana, and the pervasions themselves are not literally in a specific direction but rather radiating outwards in the general sense - is this correct?
SarathW
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Re: Metta Pervasions and Jhana in Vism.

Post by SarathW »

suspence772 wrote: Thu Feb 23, 2023 2:53 am Bumping thread. Apologies for the long post but I hope this helps others with their practice.

For a TLDR: pervasions in all directions are only done after reaching first jhana which would allow for vitakka and vicara to desist in order to reach second and third jhana, and the pervasions themselves are not literally in a specific direction but rather radiating outwards in the general sense - is this correct?
What do you mean by pervasions?
perversions
1.
distortion or corruption of the original course
“As the lamp consumes oil, the path realises Nibbana”
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Ceisiwr
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Re: Metta Pervasions and Jhana in Vism.

Post by Ceisiwr »

suspence772 wrote: Thu Feb 23, 2023 2:53 am Bumping thread. Apologies for the long post but I hope this helps others with their practice.

For a TLDR: pervasions in all directions are only done after reaching first jhana which would allow for vitakka and vicara to desist in order to reach second and third jhana, and the pervasions themselves are not literally in a specific direction but rather radiating outwards in the general sense - is this correct?
I did mean to respond to your post but forgot. I’ll post something this weekend.
“The teacher willed that this world appear to me
as impermanent, unstable, insubstantial.
Mind, let me leap into the victor’s teaching,
carry me over the great flood, so hard to pass.”


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suspence772
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Re: Metta Pervasions and Jhana in Vism.

Post by suspence772 »

SarathW wrote: Thu Feb 23, 2023 6:57 am What do you mean by pervasions?
perversions
1.
distortion or corruption of the original course
Pervasions are the act of pervading something, or to pervade; the act of projecting towards. Your response has “perversions” which is quite different.

I used the term radiate since I feel that is another way of looking at the act of spreading metta everywhere in all directions. Venerable Sujiva’s quote seems to support this as well.

And thank you Ceiswr - looking forward to it.
SarathW
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Re: Metta Pervasions and Jhana in Vism.

Post by SarathW »

My question is how he tries to mary four Jhana with Brahmavihara.
How do you practice Brhama Vihara if you do not have Vitakka and Vicar in sencond Jhana.

In this video.
Metta =1st Jhana
Karuna = 2nd Jhana
Muditha = 3rd Jhana
Upekkha = 4th Jhana
viewtopic.php?t=30856

The way now I understand it is that Metta, Karuna, Muditha and Upekka are the mental states of a Yogi who comes out of the Jhana.
ie
When you come out of first Jhana you naturally practice Metta
When you come out of 2n Jhana you are naturally inclined to Karuna
etc.
The interesting thing about this is that when you practice Brahma Vihara you can easily get in to Jhana.
It is the reverse approach.
“As the lamp consumes oil, the path realises Nibbana”
suspence772
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Re: Metta Pervasions and Jhana in Vism.

Post by suspence772 »

SarathW wrote: Fri Feb 24, 2023 1:04 am
My question is how he tries to mary four Jhana with Brahmavihara.
How do you practice Brhama Vihara if you do not have Vitakka and Vicar in sencond Jhana.

In this video.
Metta =1st Jhana
Karuna = 2nd Jhana
Muditha = 3rd Jhana
Upekkha = 4th Jhana
viewtopic.php?t=30856

The way now I understand it is that Metta, Karuna, Muditha and Upekka are the mental states of a Yogi who comes out of the Jhana.
ie
When you come out of first Jhana you naturally practice Metta
When you come out of 2n Jhana you are naturally inclined to Karuna
etc.
Thanks SarathW for the reply. Perhaps this is another way of practicing Brahma Vihara bhavana because the Vism. seems to differ in the approach. The way the pdf that accompanies the video describes each of the four abidings, it's almost as if one pervades (maybe "extends" or "wishes") all beings from the get go after first pervading metta for oneself.

From my research, the way the Vism. describes this is new in that many of the suttas described the approach of practicing metta for all beings, and not in the systematic order as presented by Buddhaghosa. See this thread and this video by Doug Smith for clarification. Of course, there are suttas that reference practicing towards specific persons - in which case, the Vism. refines the teaches, not so much supplants them. Not to make this a jhana debate, but the Vism. was a compilation of commentaries, but more research might clear this up.

Anyway, mudita is described in the Vism. (and subsequently Vibh.) is different than the way as described in the pdf, as it focuses more on inspiring the feeling of gladness as if seeing a dear and beloved person:
“And how does a bhikkhu dwell pervading one direction with his heart endued with gladness? Just as he would be glad on seeing a dear and beloved person, so he pervades all beings with gladness” (Vibh 274). (Vism. IX.85 317)
Mahasi Sayadaw also instructs practicing metta in such a way that third jhana can be reached in his great Brahmavihara Dhamma:
"This tranquility of the mind (ekaggata) with particularly obvious manifestations of vitakka, vicara, piti and sukkha is part and parcel of the normal attributes of the first jhana...This first jhana having imbibed or included the attributes of vitakka which reflects on the sensation, and of vicara which investigates into the nature of sensation, is not as strong and vigorous as it should be. Even in the course of absorption in jhana, if harsh sounds and shrill voices strike the ear-base of the sensation of hearing, the mind-consciousness may rise from jhana and then reaches the sound which is the sense-object. That is why metta should be repeatedly developed towards the person on whom the mind is usually made to dwell, to create the tranquil “Jhanic-mind” without inclusion of vitakka and vicara. When samadhi gets strengthened, extreme joy or rapture together with the calmness of the mind, which are far more increasingly better, will occur without making effort to let the mind inclined and reflected towards the sensation, and also without making investigation into that sensation. This is the achievement of second jhana. At the moment of absorption in a trance of that jhana, intense delight or ecstasy is of the highest degree. If this extremely rapturous feeling - piti is not desirable, continuous development and transmission of metta should be made towards the usual recipient of metta. When concentration gets fully developed and strengthened, excellent mental happiness and tranquility of mind without rapture (piti) will become obvious. That is the third jhana. This jhana is the most exalted or the highest jhana among metta-jhana." (Page 87)
I'm hoping this doesn't turn to a jhana war thread, but it appears that one still feels metta all the way to third jhana...
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Re: Metta Pervasions and Jhana in Vism.

Post by SarathW »

but it appears that one still feels metta all the way to third jhana...
Top
I am not sure whether we can say like this.
Are Metta, Karuna,Muditha and Upekkha progressively higher mental state?
Are these different mental states altogether different to each other?
Can Metta Karuna Muditha and Upekkha existe in the same mind same time?


I have created a new post for this.

viewtopic.php?t=44748
“As the lamp consumes oil, the path realises Nibbana”
suspence772
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Re: Metta Pervasions and Jhana in Vism.

Post by suspence772 »

SarathW wrote: Fri Feb 24, 2023 4:39 am I am not sure whether we can say like this.
I hope this thread doesn't turn into another jhana war thread. My understanding is that the "hard" camp believes the object of meditation doesn't matter since once you get in jhana, all other senses just drop away (e.g., "ambulance jhana"). With this style, one simply uses metta/karuna/mudita bhavana as their meditation object to get into first jhana, and then subsequently the next two jhanas as able. However, my citations of the Vism. seem to suggest that one keeps practicing metta/karuna/mudita bhavana till third jhana is reached. One can even do this without doing the pervasions starting at any of the first three jhanas.

So I guess what I'm wondering - the subject matter of which were previous topics I referenced in my first post at the bottom, one of which was your thread and the other was by frank k - is whether the brahma vihara jhanas according to the Vism. are "soft" in that one's object is maintaining impartiality towards the four/five persons and/or pervading whichever abiding in all directions. Switching from person to person would require some vitakka and vicara, so I'm not sure how one is to get into third "hard" jhana while doing so especially since Buddhaghosa references that entering brahma vihara jhana is similar as regards to the earth kasina (as referenced earlier):
43. Thus the sign and access are obtained by this bhikkhu simultaneously with the breaking down of the barriers. But when breaking down of the barriers has been effected, he reaches absorption in the way described under the earth kasina without trouble by cultivating, developing, and repeatedly practicing that same sign. (Vism. IX.43 308)
Hence my question as to whether one primarily performs the "unspecified pervasions" since this shouldn't require too much directed thought, in theory and practice (as supported by Venerable Sujiva's previous quote). This should allow one to focus on whatever abiding without literally directing it towards a direction or being(s). Looking for confirmation on this from others...
SarathW wrote: Fri Feb 24, 2023 4:39 am Are Metta, Karuna,Muditha and Upekkha progressively higher mental state?
Are these different mental states altogether different to each other?
Can Metta Karuna Muditha and Upekkha existe in the same mind same time?


I have created a new post for this.

viewtopic.php?t=44748
I've read from sources that each are progressively higher states, while I've also read no distinction from other authors, although upekkha is what one should aspire to - nevertheless, one should develop all in balance, not just metta. But I would say that they are definitely different from each other from what they represent, and how one cultivates them (i.e., one starts with a different person from each), according to the Vism./Vibh at least. I've read that one can cultivate metta, karuna, and mudita in tandem but this isn't common nor instructed by at least Mahasi Sayadaw (in his Brahmavihara Dhamma), Venerable Sujiva, and in the Vism./Vibh.

My overall purpose is to use brahma vihara bhavana as my samatha practice to attain jhanas, then do vipassana afterwards. However, I'm worried I may be digging myself into a hole with the jhana questions.
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Re: Metta Pervasions and Jhana in Vism.

Post by robertk »

suspence772 wrote: Sun Feb 26, 2023 4:24 am

My overall purpose is to use brahma vihara bhavana as my samatha practice to attain jhanas, then do vipassana afterwards. However, I'm worried I may be digging myself into a hole with the jhana questions.
Attaining even first jhana is no easy task - few can do it.

And to be part of vipassana development there needs to be mastery of jhana - so that immediately exiting jhana there can be insight into the elements of jhana that have just fallen away. And mastery is reserved for the truly gifted.

On the other hand vipassana can be developed directly right now. Seeing, visible object, hearing, sound and the other elements are something not far away and can be understood directly if there is sufficient right view.
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Re: Metta Pervasions and Jhana in Vism.

Post by Pondera »

I have a few things to say that will simplify your approach. I’ve read Vidsudhimagga several times and benefitted from it immensely - even if just by enhancing my overall grasp of Buddhism as a whole.

Note a few things. In our readings of Buddhaghosa’s explanation of Loving-Kindness we hear a story about the practitioner who attempted to develop it towards his wife. What happened? The practitioner “was climbing the walls”.

So, loving kindness, when developed for the opposite sex is simply sexual lust.

Loving Kindness is like “brotherly love”. It is like two male dogs who are so excited when they meet each other that they tinkle a little bit.

The sense organ of loving kindness is the penis. When all attachment to the penis is given up, then the heart opens to reveal the first stage of loving kindness. There is a second stage, but more of that later. By giving up attachment to the penis, one lets go of addiction to sensuality there. This is one way to relieve pressure on the heart so that loving kindness can open up there.

Next. What is meant by Self and why is it cultivated before the others?

Quite simply. Self at its most potent is the mind made body. We all have one. We are all prisoners to it. When we feel with the body, we emit a vibration into the mind which pervades space and time. That is why one must fill one’s body with loving kindness first. Such that, the mental image of the body which pervades space and time is EMBUED with the quality of loving kindness. In this respect, one simply cultivates more and more loving kindness towards oneself so that it “overflows” and pervades others. Watch how it is accepted by those who are dear. Rejected by hostile ones. And passed over by equanimity people. The kindness must saturate the body so much so that a hostile person cannot reject the quality of mind which is shared by all beings.

:namaste:
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Re: Metta Pervasions and Jhana in Vism.

Post by Pondera »

That’s at least one way of looking at it. For one very good reason it is possible to confuse karuna with metta - and that is that karuna is founded on the earth quality, and metta supports the earth kasina. I won’t go into detail about that.

But I will revise what I said above, due to a past occurrence and one just after I posted.

The past occurrence involves a friend of mine who is going through a divorce and another friend who kicked heroin last year. The friend who kicked heroin went to Mexico after western medicine failed him too many times. There he took a psychedelic which reset his brain, took him through the process of death and rebirth and allowed him to see a life without drugs.

After finding peace for a year, my other friend met with relationship troubles. And now he’s in the divorce process. Just recently he met up with friend number 1 and they took 5-MeO - the most powerful hallucinogenic substance known to man. Friend number 2 came out of it completely transformed. He called me and expressed the nature of his psychedelic journey. This isn’t a sales pitch for psychedelics. I don’t use them and would not and prefer normal life to altered states of mind.

The one thing he told me was that nothingness is love. I originally found that hard to swallow. My experience of nothingness as a young man was nothing short of absolute terror. So I wrote him off.

Just now, I was relieving a co-worker. I’ve been developing the earth element in my meditation. With the earth element is a certain level of “darkness”. With the earth element awareness established inside my body I greeted the co-worker. I’m fond of him. A beautiful darkness was created between us, and I felt nothing but comfort while changing shifts.

Now that I’m alone I can establish the earth awareness but because there are no other people the nothingness element is absent in any meaningful way.

That is how I see it now. So, because of how things work, I was mistaken by saying that the obstacle sense organ of metta is the penis. It is not. The obstacle sense organ to metta is the ear.
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Re: Metta Pervasions and Jhana in Vism.

Post by Ceisiwr »

suspence772 wrote: Thu Feb 23, 2023 2:53 am Bumping thread. Apologies for the long post but I hope this helps others with their practice.

For a TLDR: pervasions in all directions are only done after reaching first jhana which would allow for vitakka and vicara to desist in order to reach second and third jhana, and the pervasions themselves are not literally in a specific direction but rather radiating outwards in the general sense - is this correct?
In SN 46.54 the 4 brahmavihārās are only done after the hindrances are abandoned, meaning that the pervasion in all directions are only done whilst one is in Jhāna. On the directions, I think a case can be made that it's referring to the caste system. In other words, one spreads mettā etc to all beings. IMO this involves the Eight Bases of Mastery and the Eight Liberations, but my view is at odds with the commentarial position. I've started discussing that on this post viewtopic.php?t=44749and in more detail over at SuttaCentral https://discourse.suttacentral.net/t/th ... tive/28279
“The teacher willed that this world appear to me
as impermanent, unstable, insubstantial.
Mind, let me leap into the victor’s teaching,
carry me over the great flood, so hard to pass.”


- Tālapuṭattheragāthā
suspence772
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Re: Metta Pervasions and Jhana in Vism.

Post by suspence772 »

robertk wrote: Sun Feb 26, 2023 7:19 am Attaining even first jhana is no easy task - few can do it.

And to be part of vipassana development there needs to be mastery of jhana - so that immediately exiting jhana there can be insight into the elements of jhana that have just fallen away. And mastery is reserved for the truly gifted.

On the other hand vipassana can be developed directly right now. Seeing, visible object, hearing, sound and the other elements are something not far away and can be understood directly if there is sufficient right view.
This is exactly why I stopped diving deep into the jhana war. I've been discouraged to even try jhana without a teacher since I'd like to gain a better understanding of whether I'm practicing it correctly. I hear viewpoints from all sides: soft jhana is okay, anything other than hard isn't even access concentration, both are jhana just varying depths, only one in a million can do it (which by the way isn't true - large numbers were used to emphasize magnitude and not to be taken literally), first jhana isn't that big of a deal and most people can get into it without too much trouble, etc.

As a result, I've been inclined to "settle" on Mahasi-noting since it has been easy enough to do and powerful, but metta has been one of the greatest additions to my practice and now wish to make it part of my foundation. I really just don't know what to believe anymore: I've used Leigh Brasington's book to get to a soft jhanas up to fourth and think it may even be easier to just do the Bhante V./TWIM method but are those even worth doing? I'm sure everyone has their opinions...
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Re: Metta Pervasions and Jhana in Vism.

Post by robertk »

suspence772 wrote: Mon Feb 27, 2023 4:18 am
robertk wrote: Sun Feb 26, 2023 7:19 am Attaining even first jhana is no easy task - few can do it.

And to be part of vipassana development there needs to be mastery of jhana - so that immediately exiting jhana there can be insight into the elements of jhana that have just fallen away. And mastery is reserved for the truly gifted.

On the other hand vipassana can be developed directly right now. Seeing, visible object, hearing, sound and the other elements are something not far away and can be understood directly if there is sufficient right view.

As a result, I've been inclined to "settle" on Mahasi-noting since it has been easy enough to do and powerful, but metta has been one of the greatest additions to my practice and now wish to make it part of my foundation....
So does metta need to be developed to the level of jhana to be beneficial, or can friendliness be gradually inculcated while with other people?
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