According to Theravada the mind is divorced from the 5 sense faculties in first jhana (no hearing, no seeing, no bodily sensations, etc). It's canonical and among the Points of Controversy.
Points of Controversy wrote:
18.8 Of Hearing in Jhāna
Controverted Point: That one who has attained Jhāna hears sound.
Theravādin: If so, it must be equally allowed that he can also see, smell, taste and touch objects. This you deny … You must also allow that he enters Jhāna enjoying auditory consciousness. You deny, for you agree that concentration arises in one who is enjoying mental objects as such? But if you admit that anyone who is actually enjoying sounds hears sounds, and that concentration is the property of one who is actually enjoying mental objects as such, you should not affirm that one in the concentration of Jhāna hears sounds. If you insist that he does, you have here two parallel mental procedures going on at the same time … .
Pubbaseliya: But was it not said by the Exalted One that
“Sound is a thorn for First Jhāna”?
Hence one in Jhāna can surely hear sound.
Theravādin: You say that one in Jhāna can hear sound, and quote the Word as to it being for First Jhāna a “thorn”. Now it was further said that thought applied and sustained is a thorn for Second Jhāna—does one in Second Jhāna have applied and sustained thought? … Again, it was further said that the mental factor last eliminated is a thorn for the stage newly attained—zest for Third, respiration for Fourth Jhāna, perception of visible objects for consciousness of space-infinity, this perception for that of consciousness as infinite, this perception for that of nothingness, perception and feeling for cessation of these in trance. Now is “the thorn” actually present on the winning of the stage whence it is pronounced to be a thorn? If not, then how can you say that the “thorn” of hearing sound is present to one in First Jhāna?
https://suttacentral.net/kv18.8/en/aung ... ight=false
However Theravadins also needed to explain passages like this here
Quite secluded from sense pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, he enters and dwells in the first jhāna, which is accompanied by applied and sustained thought and filled with the rapture and happiness born of seclusion. He drenches, steeps, saturates, and suffuses his body with this rapture and happiness born of seclusion, so that there is no part of his entire body which is not suffused by this rapture and happiness.
https://suttacentral.net/dn2/en/bodhi?r ... ight=false
I enter a grove. I collect some grass or leaves that I find there into a pile and then sit down. Having folded my legs crosswise and straightened my body, I establish mindfulness in front of me. Then, secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, I enter and dwell in the first jhāna, which consists of rapture and pleasure born of seclusion, accompanied by thought and examination. With the subsiding of thought and examination, I enter and dwell in the second jhāna, which has internal placidity and unification of mind and consists of rapture and pleasure born of concentration, without thought and examination. With the fading away as well of rapture, I dwell equanimous and, mindful and clearly comprehending, I experience pleasure with the body; I enter and dwell in the third jhāna of which the noble ones declare: ‘He is equanimous, mindful, one who dwells happily.’ With the abandoning of pleasure and pain, and with the previous passing away of joy and dejection, I enter and dwell in the fourth jhāna, neither painful nor pleasant, which has purification of mindfulness by equanimity.
“Then, brahmin, when I am in such a state, if I walk back and forth, on that occasion my walking back and forth is celestial. If I am standing, on that occasion my standing is celestial. If I am sitting, on that occasion my sitting is celestial. If I lie down, on that occasion this is my celestial high and luxurious bed. This is that celestial high and luxurious bed that at present I can gain at will, without trouble or difficulty.”
https://suttacentral.net/an3.63/en/bodh ... ight=false
There is the case where you recollect the Tathagata: 'Indeed, the Blessed One is worthy and rightly self-awakened, consummate in knowledge & conduct, well-gone, an expert with regard to the world, unexcelled as a trainer for those people fit to be tamed, the Teacher of divine & human beings, awakened, blessed.' At any time when a disciple of the noble ones is recollecting the Tathagata, his mind is not overcome with passion, not overcome with aversion, not overcome with delusion. His mind heads straight, based on the Tathagata. And when the mind is headed straight, the disciple of the noble ones gains a sense of the goal, gains a sense of the Dhamma, gains joy connected with the Dhamma. In one who is joyful, rapture arises. In one who is rapturous, the body grows calm. One whose body is calmed experiences ease. In one at ease, the mind becomes concentrated.
"Mahanama, you should develop this recollection of the Buddha while you are walking, while you are standing, while you are sitting, while you are lying down, while you are busy at work, while you are resting in your home crowded with children.
https://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitak ... .than.html
This is obviously a big problem and commmentators came up with explainations like this;
Bhikkhu Bodhi notes [on an3.63]:
Mp says that his walking back and forth is celestial when, having entered the four jhānas, he walks back and forth; and his walking back and forth is celestial when, after emerging from the four jhānas, he walks back and forth. This seems to imply that walking can occur even with the mind in jhāna. This, however, is contradicted by the dominant understanding that jhāna is a state of uninterrupted absorption in an object, in which case intentional movements like walking would not be possible. Mp-ṭ explains the first case of Mp (walking after entering the jhānas) to mean that he walks back and forth immediately after emerging from the jhāna, while the second case (walking after emerging) to mean that he walks back and forth after having emerged some time earlier.
However i don't think many people were satisfied with such explainations and there was a need for additional doctrine found in Vissudhimagga
* khanika samadhi - momentary concentration
* upacara samadhi - access [borderline] concentration
* appana samadhi - absorbtion concentration
* the doctrine of "dry insight" with it's 'imperfections of insight"
The Ten Imperfections of Insight (vipassanupakilesas):
An inexperienced meditator may be confused by any of the following experiences, mistakenly believing that he or she has reached nibbana. Though not in themselves obstacles, the meditator may be tempted to cling to these experiences, believing them to be important, rather than continuing to note the arising and passing away of mental and physical phenomena in the present moment. At such time the guidance of a teacher is invaluable.
Obhasa is the first defilement of insight.
The meditator may be aware of the following manifestations of light:
He may see a light similar to a firefly, a torch or a car headlamp.The room may be lit up, enabling the meditator to see his or her own body.He or she may be aware of light that seems to pass through the wall.There may be a light enabling one to see various places before one's eyes.There may be a bright light as though a door had opened. Some meditators lift up their hands as if to shut it; others open their eyes to see what caused the light.A vision of brightly colored flowers surrounded by light may be seen.Miles and miles of sea may be seen.Rays of light seem to emit from the meditator's heart and body.Hallucinations such as seeing an elephant may occur.
Piti (Joy or rapture)
Piti is the second defilement of insight. There are five kinds of piti.
1. Khuddaka piti (minor rapture)
This state is characterized by the following:
The meditator may be aware of a white color.There may be a feeling of coolness or dizziness and the hairs of the body may stand on end.The meditator may cry or feel terrified.
2. Khanika piti (momentary rapture)
Characteristics of this piti include:
Seeing flashes of light.Seeing sparks.Nervous twitching.A feeling of stiffness all over the body.A feeling as if ants were crawling on the body.A feeling of heat all over the body.Shivering.Seeing red colors.The hair on the body rising slightly.Itchiness as if ants were crawling on one's face and body.
3. Okkantika piti (flood of joy)
In this piti:
The body may shake and tremble.The face, hands and feet may twitch.There may be violent shaking as if the bed is going to turn upside down.Nausea and at times actual vomiting may occur.There may be a rhythmic feeling like waves breaking on the shore.Ripples of energy may seem to flow over the body.The body may vibrate like a stick which is fixed in a flowing stream.A light yellow color may be observed.The body may bend to and fro.
4. Ubbenka piti (uplifting joy)
In this piti:
The body feels as if it is extending or moving upwards.There may be a feeling as though lice are climbing on the face and body.Diarrhea may occur.The body may bend forwards or backwards.One may feel that one's head has been moved backwards and forwards by somebody.There may be a chewing movement with the mouth either open or closed.The body sways like a tree being blown by the wind.The body bends forwards and may fall down.There may be fidgeting movements of the body.There may be jumping movements of the body.Arms and legs may be raised or may twitch.The body may bend forwards or may recline.A silver gray color may be observed.
5. Pharana piti (pervading rapture)
In this piti:
A feeling of coldness spreads through the body.Peace of mind sets in occasionally.There may be itchy feelings all over the body.There may be drowsy feelings and the meditator may not wish to open his or her eyes.The meditator has no wish to move.There may be a flushing sensation from feet to head or vice versa.The body may feel cool as if taking a bath or touching ice.The meditator may see blue or emerald green colors.An itchy feeling as though lice are crawling on the face may occur.
The third defilement of vipassana is passadhi which means "tranquility of mental factors and consciousness." It is characterized as follows:
There may be a quiet, peaceful state resembling the attainment of insight.There will be no restlessness or mental rambling.Mindful acknowledgement is easy.The meditator feels comfortably cool and does not fidget.The meditator feels satisfied with his powers of acknowledgement.There may be a feeling similar to falling asleep.There may be a feeling of lightness.Concentration is good and there is no forgetfulness.Thoughts are quite clear.A cruel, harsh or merciless person will realize that the dhamma is profound.A criminal or drunkard will be able to give up bad habits and will change into quite a different person.
The fourth defilement of vipassana is sukha which means "bliss" and has the following characteristics:
There may be a feeling of comfort.Due to pleasant feelings the meditator may wish to continue practicing for a long time.The meditator may wish to tell other people of the results which he has already gained.The meditator may feel immeasurably proud and happy.Some say that they have never known such happiness.Some feel deeply grateful to their teachers.Some meditators feel that their teacher is at hand to give help.
The next defilement of vipassana is saddha which is defined as fervor, resolution or determination, and has the following characteristics:
The practitioner may have too much faith.He or she may wish everybody to practice vipassana.He may wish to persuade those he comes in contact with to practice.He may wish to repay the meditation center for its benefaction.The meditator may wish to accelerate and deepen his practice.<He or she may wish to perform meritorious deeds, give alms and build and repair Buddhist buildings and artifacts.He may feel grateful to the person who persuaded him to practice.He may wish to give offerings to his teacher.A meditator may wish to be ordained as a Buddhist monk or nun.He may not wish to stop practicing.He might wish to go and stay in a quiet, peaceful place.The meditator may decide to practice wholeheartedly.
The next defilement of vipassana is paggaha which means exertion or strenuousness and is defined as follows:
Sometimes the meditator may practice too strenuously.He may intend to practice rigorously, even unto death.The meditator overexerts himself so that attentiveness and clear comprehension are weak, causing distraction and lack of concentration
7. Upatthana, which means "mindfulness," is the next defilement of vipassana, and it is characterized by the following:
Sometimes excessive concentration upon thought causes the meditator to leave acknowledgement of the present and inclines him to think of the past or future.The meditator may be unduly concerned with happenings which took place in the past.The meditator may have vague recollections of past lives.
The next vipassanupakilesa is nana which means "knowledge" and is defined as follows:
Theoretical knowledge may become confused with practice. The meditator misunderstands but thinks that he is right. he may become fond of ostentatiousness and like contending with his teacher.A meditator may make comments about various objects. For example when the abdomen rises he may say "arising" and when it falls he may say "ceasing."The meditator may consider various principles which he knows or has studied.The present cannot be grasped. Usually it is "thinking" which fills up the mind. This may be referred to as "thought-based knowledge," jinta nana.
The ninth defilement of vipassana is upekkha which has the meaning of not caring or indifference. It can be described as follows:
The mind of the meditator is indifferent, neither pleased nor displeased, nor forgetful. The rising and falling of the abdomen is indistinct and at times imperceptible.The meditator is unmindful, at times thinking of nothing in particular.The rising and falling of the abdomen may be intermittently perceptible.The mind is undisturbed and peaceful.The meditator is indifferent to bodily needs.The meditator is unaffected when in contact with either good or bad objects. Mindful acknowledgement is disregarded and attention is allowed to follow exterior objects to a great extent.
The tenth vipassanupakilesa is nikanti which means "gratification" and it has the following characteristics:
The meditator finds satisfaction in various objects.He is satisfied with light, joy, happiness, faith, exertion, knowledge and even-mindedness.He is satisfied with various nimittas (visions)
In regards to this one gets explainations like these here
Mahasi Sayadaw wrote:
Insight meditation and absorption have some characteristics in common. When the practice of mindfulness is well established at the exploratory stage, i.e. knowledge by comprehension (sammasanañāna), there are initial application (vitakka), sustained application (vicāra), joy (pīti), bliss (sukha), and one-pointedness (ekagattā). Thus, whenever the meditator observes any phenomenon, his insight meditation is somewhat like the first absorption with its five characteristics.
When the meditator gains insight-knowledge of the arising and passing away of all phenomena, he is fully aware of an arising object without initial or sustained application. He has intense joy, bliss, and tranquillity, thus his meditation is somewhat like the second absorption with its three attributes.
The disappearance of the light, and so forth — the corruptions of insight (upakkilesa) — marks an advance in the insight-knowledge of the arising and passing away of phenomena. Then there is no joy, but bliss is very intense. The mind is tranquil and free from distractions. The meditator has the bliss and one-pointedness that are characteristics of the third absorption.
The higher levels of insight-knowledge such as knowledge of dissolution (bhangañāna), wherein the meditator sees only the passing away usually have nothing to do with joy. They are characterised by equanimity and one-pointedness. The former is especially pronounced at the stage of knowledge of equanimity about formations. At this stage the insight meditation is akin to the fourth absorption with its two attributes of equanimity and one-pointedness
https://holybooks-lichtenbergpress.netd ... -Sutta.pdf
One thing that stands out is the lack of incorporation of Kasina into all of this. Kasina have a very different role in the Sutta discourse compared to what is made of it in Vsm and i'll leave it at that.
To sum up.
As i see it, the Abhidhamma interpretation should be supplemented with the additional doctrine pertaining to dry insight for the sutta to make sense.