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Pali Term: Dhamma-vicaya

Posted: Fri Sep 10, 2010 3:11 pm
by Assaji
Hello Pali friends,

First, 'dhamma-vicaya' is connected to discrimination, examination, investigation and wisdom:

“Yadapi, bhikkhave, ajjhatta.m dhammesu pa~n~naaya pavicinati pavicarati pariviima.msam aapajjati tadapi dhammavicayasambojjha’ngo, yadapi bahiddhaa dhammesu pa~n~naaya pavicinati pavicarati pariviima.msamaapajjati tadapi dhammavicayasambojjha’ngo. (S 5.111)

Whatever discriminates, examines, applies investigation by means of wisdom among dhammas that are within, this is the awakening-factor of dhamma-discrimination. Whatever discriminates, examines, applies investigation by means of wisdom among dhammas that are without, this is the awakening-factor of dhamma-discrimination.

(translation by Rupert Gethin in his book "The Buddhist Path to Awakening", p. 147)

Anapanasati sutta:

“So tathaasato viharanto ta.m dhamma.m pa~n~naaya pavicinati pavicayati pariviima.msa.m aapajjati. Yasmi.m samaye, bhikkhave, bhikkhu tathaasato viharanto ta.m dhamma.m pa~n~naaya pavicinati pavicayati pariviima.msa.m aapajjati, dhammavicayasambojjha’ngo tasmi.m samaye bhikkhuno aaraddho hoti, dhammavicayasambojjha’nga.m tasmi.m samaye bhikkhu bhaaveti, dhammavicayasambojjha’ngo tasmi.m samaye bhikkhuno bhaavanaapaaripuuri.m gacchati." (M 3.85)

When a bhikkhu, dwelling mindful in this way, discriminates, inspects, applies investigation by means of wisdom to this dhamma, then the awakening-factor of dhamma-discrimination is instigated for that bhikkhu.

(translation by Rupert Gethin in his book "the Buddhist Path to Awakening", p. 147)
http://www.accesstoinsight.org/canon/su ... mn118.html" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;

Vi-caya mean di-scrimination through enumerative arrangement:

Atha kho bhagavaa tassa bhikkhuno cetasaa cetoparivitakkama~n~naaya bhikkhuu aamantesi– “vicayaso desito, bhikkhave, mayaa dhammo; vicayaso desitaa cattaaro satipa.t.thaanaa; vicayaso desitaa cattaaro sammappadhaanaa; vicayaso desitaa cattaaro iddhipaadaa; vicayaso desitaani pa~ncindriyaani; vicayaso desitaani pa~nca balaani; vicayaso desitaa sattabojjha’ngaa; vicayaso desito ariyo a.t.tha’ngiko maggo. Eva.m vicayaso desito, bhikkhave, mayaa dhammo. (S 3.96)

Dhamma is taught by me, bhikkhus, by way of discrimination; the four establishings of mindfulness are taught by way of discrimination; the four bases of success are taught by way of discrimination; the five faculties are taught by way of discrimination; the five powers are taught by way of discrimination; the seven awakening-factors are taught by way of discrimination; the noble eight-factored path is taught by way of discrimination. Thus dhamma is taught by me by way of discrimination.

(translation by Rupert Gethin in his book "the Buddhist Path to Awakening", p. 153)
http://www.accesstoinsight.org/canon/sa ... 2-081.html" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;

And what is to be discriminated by dhamma-vicaya? First of all, skilful and unskilful qualities.

Ahara sutta:

"Ko ca, bhikkhave, āhāro anuppannassa vā dhammavicayasambojjha'ngassa uppādāya, uppannassa vā dhammavicayasambojjha'ngassa bhāvanāya pāripūriyā? Atthi, bhikkhave, kusalākusalā dhammā sāvajjānavajjā dhammā hīnapa.nītā dhammā ka.nhasukkasappa.tibhāgā dhammā. Tattha yonisomanasikārabahulīkāro – ayamāhāro anuppannassa vā dhammavicayasambojjha'ngassa uppādāya, uppannassa vā dhammavicayasambojjha'ngassa bhāvanāya pāripūriyā.

"And what is the food for the arising of unarisen discrimination of qualities as a factor for Awakening, or for the growth & increase of analysis of qualities... once it has arisen? There are mental qualities that are skillful & unskillful, blameworthy & blameless, gross & refined, siding with darkness & with light. To foster appropriate attention to them: This is the food for the arising of unarisen discrimination of qualities as a factor for Awakening, or for the growth & increase of analysis of qualities... once it has arisen.

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/canon/su ... 6-051.html" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;

As a factor of awakening, dhamma-vicaya fits naturally between sati and viriya.

First you become aware of the quality - sati.

Then you discern whether it is skilful or unskilful.

This makes possible to apply four right efforts of viriya: developing skilful and abandoning unskilful.

The sequence of factors of Awakening (bojjhanga), and particularly the development of dhamma-vicaya, is illustrated in Dvedhavitakka sutta (MN 19)

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/canon/su ... 9-tb0.html" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;

sati - "I remained thus heedful, ardent"

dhamma-vicaya -

'Why don't I keep dividing my thinking into two sorts?' So I made thinking imbued with sensuality, thinking imbued with ill will, & thinking imbued with harmfulness one sort, and thinking imbued with renunciation, thinking imbued with non-ill will, & thinking imbued with harmlessness another sort.

"And as I remained thus heedful, ardent, & resolute, thinking imbued with sensuality arose. I discerned that 'Thinking imbued with sensuality has arisen in me; and that leads to my own affliction or to the affliction of others or to the affliction of both. It obstructs discernment, promotes vexation, & does not lead to Unbinding.'

viriya -

"As I noticed that it leads to my own affliction, it subsided. As I noticed that it leads to the affliction of others... to the affliction of both... it obstructs discernment, promotes vexation, & does not lead to Unbinding, it subsided. Whenever thinking imbued with sensuality had arisen, I simply abandoned it, destroyed it, dispelled it, wiped it out of existence.

"Unflagging persistence was aroused in me, and unmuddled mindfulness established.

piti, passaddhi, samadhi, upekkha -

"Quite withdrawn from sensuality, withdrawn from unskillful mental qualities, I entered & remained in the first jhana: rapture & pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought & evaluation. With the stilling of directed thought & evaluation, I entered & remained in the second jhana: rapture & pleasure born of composure, unification of awareness free from directed thought & evaluation — internal assurance. With the fading of rapture I remained in equanimity, mindful & alert, and physically sensitive of pleasure. I entered & remained in the third jhana, of which the Noble Ones declare, 'Equanimous & mindful, he has a pleasurable abiding.' With the abandoning of pleasure & pain — as with the earlier disappearance of elation & distress — I entered & remained in the fourth jhana: purity of equanimity & mindfulness, neither pleasure nor pain."

Metta,
Dmytro

Re: Pali Term: Dhamma-vicaya

Posted: Fri Sep 10, 2010 4:36 pm
by Nyana
Please continue to keep up the good work Dmytro. This post is particularly clear and well said.

All the best,

Geoff

Re: Pali Term: Dhamma-vicaya

Posted: Fri Sep 10, 2010 8:23 pm
by Kenshou
Though I've got nothing to add, I do find these posts interesting as well.

Re: Pali Term: Dhamma-vicaya

Posted: Fri Sep 10, 2010 8:43 pm
by Cittasanto
Do you formulate there yourself? or get them from somewhere?

either way thank-you for posting them!

Re: Pali Term: Dhamma-vicaya

Posted: Sat Sep 11, 2010 9:10 am
by Assaji
Thank you for the warm words!

This post is an updated version of my post on E-Sangha. Recently my good friend kindly provided me with almost complete archive of my posts there.

This research was initiated by the need to translate Pali texts in Russian. There are a lot of such Russian threads at our forum: http://dhamma.ru/forum/index.php?topic=311.0" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;

Metta, Dmytro