Page 1 of 1

Pali Term: Yoniso Manasikāro

Posted: Mon Oct 18, 2010 6:39 pm
by Assaji
Hello Pali friends,

"Yoniso manasikāro" is defined in the suttas through its function - to develop the skillful qualities:

"Yoniso, bhikkhave, bhikkhu manasi karonto akusalaṃ pajahati, kusalaṃ bhāvetī’’ti.

"A monk who attends appropriately abandons what is unskillful and develops what is skillful." ... ml#iti-016" onclick=";return false;

"Jānato ahaṃ, bhikkhave, passato āsavānaṃ khayaṃ vadāmi, no ajānato no apassato. Kiñca, bhikkhave, jānato kiñca passato āsavānaṃ khayaṃ vadāmi? Yoniso ca manasikāraṃ ayoniso ca manasikāraṃ. Ayoniso, bhikkhave, manasikaroto anuppannā ceva āsavā uppajjanti, uppannā ca āsavā pavaḍḍhanti; yoniso ca kho, bhikkhave, manasikaroto anuppannā ceva āsavā na uppajjanti, uppannā ca āsavā pahīyanti."

"The Blessed One said, "Monks, the ending of the fermentations is for one who knows & sees, I tell you, not for one who does not know & does not see. For one who knows what & sees what? Appropriate attention & inappropriate attention. When a monk attends inappropriately, unarisen fermentations arise, and arisen fermentations increase. When a monk attends appropriately, unarisen fermentations do not arise, and arisen fermentations are abandoned." ... .than.html" onclick=";return false;

The specifics of how the attention feeds skillful or unskillful qualities are given in:

Ahara sutta - ... .than.html" onclick=";return false;

Ayoniso-manasikara sutta - ... .than.html" onclick=";return false;

Titthiya sutta - ... .than.html" onclick=";return false;

Silavant sutta - ... .than.html" onclick=";return false;

"Monks, there are these two conditions for the arising of right view. Which two? The voice of another and appropriate attention. These are the two conditions for the arising of right view." ... .than.html" onclick=";return false;

Mulapannasa-Atthakatha 1.64-67 in the words of Bjikkhu Bodhi, in the notes 33 and 36 to the translation of Sabbasava sutta (Pali text added):
Tattha yoniso manasikāro nāma upāyamanasikāro pathamanasikāro, aniccādīsu aniccanti ādinā eva nayena saccānulomikena vā cittassa āvaṭṭanā anvāvaṭṭanā ābhogo samannāhāro manasikāro, ayaṃ vuccati yoniso manasikāroti.

Wise attention (yoniso manasikāra) is glossed as attention that is the right means (upāya), on the right track (patha). It is explained as mental advertence, consideration, or preoccupation that accords with the truth, namely, attention to the impermanent as impermanent, etc.

Ayoniso manasikāroti anupāyamanasikāro uppathamanasikāro. Anicce niccanti dukkhe sukhanti anattani attāti asubhe subhanti ayoniso manasikāro uppathamanasikāro. Saccappaṭikulena vā cittassa āvaṭṭanā anvāvaṭṭanā ābhogo samannāhāro manasikāro, ayaṃ vuccati ayoniso manasikāroti. Evaṃ yoniso manasikāraṃ uppādetuṃ jānato, ayoniso manasikāro ca yathā na uppajjati, evaṃ passato āsavānaṃ khayo hoti.

Ayoniso manasikāro hi vaḍḍhamāno dve dhamme paripūreti avijjañca bhavataṇhañca. Avijjāya ca sati ‘‘avijjāpaccayā saṅkhārā…pe… dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti. Taṇhāya sati taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṃ…pe… samudayo hotī’’ti.

Yoniso manasikāro pana vaḍḍhamāno – ‘‘yoniso manasikārasampannassetaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno pāṭikaṅkhaṃ, ariyaṃ aṭṭhaṅgikaṃ maggaṃ bhāvessati, ariyaṃ aṭṭhaṅgikaṃ maggaṃ bahulīkarissatī’’ti (saṃ. ni. 5.55) vacanato sammādiṭṭhipamukhaṃ aṭṭhaṅgikaṃ maggaṃ paripūreti.

Unwise attention (ayoniso manasikāra) is attention that is the wrong means, on the wrong track (uppatha), contrary to the truth, namely, attention to the impermanent as permanent, the painful as pleasurable, what is not self as self, and what is foul as beautiful. Unwise attention, MA informs us, is at the root of the round of existence, for it causes ignorance and craving to increase; wise attention is at the root of liberation from the round, since it leads to the development of the Noble Eightfold Path. MA sums up the point of this passage thus: the destruction of the taints is for one who knows how to arouse wise attention and who sees to it that unwise attention does not arise.

Yasmā pana ime dhammā manasikaraṇīyā, ime amanasikaraṇīyāti dhammato niyamo natthi, ākārato pana atthi. Yenā ākārena manasikariyamānā akusaluppattipadaṭṭhānā honti, tenākārena na manasikātabbā. Yena kusaluppattipadaṭṭhānā honti, tenākārena manasikātabbā.

MA makes the important point that there is no fixed determination in things themselves as to whether they are fit or unfit for attention. The distinction consists, rather, in the mode of attention. That mode of attention that is a causal basis for unwholesome states of mind should be avoided, while that mode of attention that is a causal basis for wholesome states should be developed.
Metta, Dmytro

Re: Pali Term: Yoniso Manasikāro

Posted: Mon Oct 18, 2010 6:40 pm
by Assaji
Good article on this subject:

New Thought in Buddhism

Phra Suthivorayan ... &lpg=PA173

Re: Pali Term: Yoniso Manasikāro

Posted: Sun Apr 30, 2017 6:57 am
by Assaji
One of the earliest definitions is given in Petakopadesa:
ajjhattaṃ yoniso manasikāro nāma yo yathādesite dhamme bahiddhā ārammaṇaṃ anabhinīharitvā yoniso manasikāro — ayaṃ vuccati yoniso manasikāro.

taṃākāro yoniso dvāro vidhi upāyo. yathā puriso sukkhe kaṭṭhe vigatasnehe sukkhāya uttarāraṇiyā thale abhimanthamānaṃ bhabbo jotissa adhigamāya. taṃ kissa hetu. yoniso aggissa adhigamāya. evamevassa yamidaṃ dukkhasamudayanirodhamaggānaṃ aviparītadhammadesanaṃ manasikaroti — ayaṃ vuccati yoniso manasikāro.
This explanation alludes to Payasi sutta:
araṇisahitaṃ dvidhā phālesiṃ, tidhā phālesiṃ, catudhā phālesiṃ, pañcadhā phālesiṃ, dasadhā phālesiṃ, satadhā phālesiṃ, sakalikaṃ sakalikaṃ akāsiṃ, sakalikaṃ sakalikaṃ karitvā udukkhale koṭṭesiṃ, udukkhale koṭṭetvā mahāvāte opuniṃ — “appeva nāma aggiṃ adhigaccheyyan”ti. nevāhaṃ aggiṃ adhigacchi’n”ti. atha kho tassa aggikassa jaṭilassa etadahosi — ‘yāva bālo ayaṃ dārako abyatto, kathañhi nāma ayoniso aggiṃ gavesissatī’ti. tassa pekkhamānassa araṇisahitaṃ gahetvā aggiṃ nibbattetvā taṃ dārakaṃ etadavoca — ‘evaṃ kho, tāta, aggi nibbattetabbo. na tveva yathā tvaṃ bālo abyatto ayoniso aggiṃ gavesī’ti. evameva kho tvaṃ, rājañña, bālo abyatto ayoniso paralokaṃ gavesissasi.

And I went on till I had smashed the fire drill into atoms, pounded it in a mortar and winnowed it in the wind, but I never got any fire!” Then the Jaṭila thought—“How silly, how unintelligent is the lad! Why will he be seeking fire in this senseless manner? “And while the boy looked on, he took a fire drill, and making fire said to him— “This is how to make fire, my lad. One doesn’t try to get it as you, so silly and unintelligent, were trying.” Even so, Prince, have you, silly and unintelligent, sought after another world.

Re: Pali Term: Yoniso Manasikāro

Posted: Thu May 04, 2017 5:42 am
by Pseudobabble
Thanks for posting this. I am beginning to see the centrality of Yoniso Manasikara.

Re: Pali Term: Yoniso Manasikāro

Posted: Thu Jul 19, 2018 3:43 am
by Kumara
From the Suttas, we can tell that yoniso manasikāra (besides yoniso manasikaroti) has a very wide application, so wide that the usual translations, like wise/appropriate attention/reflection/consideration seems unsatisfactory, a tad too narrow. So, I wondered if I could find a more accurate rendering, and took time to research into it.

The result: wise cognition.

Generally I like to be literal, but translating "yoni" as "source" often doesn't work. Despite its etymology, it seems to have evolved into simply "wisdom" in the ablative "yoniso", which has been quite reasonably rendered as "wise".

"Manasikāra" is literally "in-the-mind making/doing". Much doing/making happens in the mano (cognitive mind), which seems to fit into how "cognition" is so widely used now:
  • cognitive mental processes (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate® Dictionary)
  • The mental process or faculty of knowing, including aspects such as awareness, perception, reasoning, and judgment. (American Heritage Dictionary)
  • the process of knowing, understanding, and learning something (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English)
I find Merriam-Webster's definition quite elegantly defines "manasikāra ", except that I would have it as "processing" (instead of "processes"), since cognition is singular.

Anyway, for me at least, yoniso manasikāra is wise cognition, which easily fits into the many ways the term is used in the Suttas, and more importantly into actual practice.

Re: Pali Term: Yoniso Manasikāro

Posted: Thu Jul 19, 2018 6:21 am
by SarathW
yoniso manasikāra is wise cognition
Thank you, Bhante.
In your opinion where does Yoniso Maansikara fit Noble Eightfold Path?
Which limb?

Re: Pali Term: Yoniso Manasikāro

Posted: Thu Jul 19, 2018 8:58 am
by Kumara
SarathW wrote: Thu Jul 19, 2018 6:21 am
yoniso manasikāra is wise cognition
Thank you, Bhante.
In your opinion where does Yoniso Maansikara fit Noble Eightfold Path?
Which limb?
This question may not be useful. But if I must specify something, I'd say it's under the wisdom component.

Anyway, consider this:
... this is the forerunner and harbinger for the arising of the Noble Eightfold Path, that is, yoniso manasikara. When a bhikkhu is accomplished in yoniso manasikara, it is to be expected that he will develop and cultivate this Noble Eightfold Path. (SN45.55)

Re: Pali Term: Yoniso Manasikāro

Posted: Thu Aug 09, 2018 2:25 am
by Kumara
On manasikāra alone, see this: viewtopic.php?t=11734#p177671